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Full text of "Uniforms of the American Marines 1775-1932; including the uniform of the Colonial American Marines, 1740-1742"

^flARINE CORPS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



UNIFORMS 
of the ' 
AMERICAN MARINES 

1775 to 1932 

Includin-^ the Uniform of the 

C^lonisl .American Marines 

1740-1742 

By Major Ed^in North McClellpn 

Off icer-in-Chgrgc 

Historical Section 



PART C7K 
(Reranlnder of text and complete index 
vdll be found in Part T^-o ) 



(To be revised upon discovery of 
new material by research) 



(Onlv tv'o hundred copies made) 



First Edition 
September 30, 1932 



FORENOTE 

The information for theese Uniforms of the Araeri- 
can Marines has been secured after yea.rs of work by a 
researcher possessing a thorou?z;h knowledge of Marine 
Corps History. 

This compilation is not the final manuscript of 
this book but represents only material and sources 
upon Fhich it will be based. Since the information 
expressed in this Manuscript required original re- 
search, vrhich has not been completed, it r-as decided 
to publish it first in mimeogra-phed form. Consider- 
able additiona.l information x''ill ha.ve been collected 
by the time it is desirable to write the final man- 
uscript for printing. However, the information herein 
contained is sufficient to afford historians and other 
writers, and illustrators, ample knowledp:e in their i^'ork. 

Every effort has been ma.de to give the a.ctuR.l ^"ords 
from the original documents and to a.void filling in a,nv 
gaps, tha.t might exist, with inferences and opinions. 
For instance, the informa.tion for the Uniforms of the 
American Revolution is meagre, as well a.s soraewha.t con- 
tradictory, but only vrhat is known is set forth. The 
source of information is placed in parenthesis a.fter 
each element of information, 

Only two hundred copies of this Manuscript have 
been raa.de. If for any reason those to whom it is 
sent do not desire to retain it plea.se inform the 
Historical Section, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington 
D.C. and arrangements will be made for its return. 

As a matter of convenience this manuscript is 
divided into Ti"o Parts. 

The Index at end of Part Two alwa.ys should be con- 
sulted as it will give the reader the location of the 
complete subject of ^^-hich information is sought. 

The following form of citation is sug^rested if 
it is desired to cite, either in published -^'orks, or 
manuscript, any informa.tion contained herein ;- 

(McClellan, Uniform American Marines, 
1st ed. , p. — ) 



Uniforms -1- Araerica.n Lla.rines 

THE AMERICAN MRINES 



America had its prehistoric huraa,n, and its ancient 
civilations, a,s ha.d the Eastern Continent. And just as 
Persia, Greece, Phoenicia, Rome, Carthage, and other ancient 
states, had their Marines so will it be shown sorae day that 
there ^^ere Ancient American Marines, Call them what you 
will - Toltecs, Aztecs, Mayas - some day their Story ^vili be 
told including something about their Uniforms. Amon-z the 
early Am.erican Indians there were those who fousht afloa.t 
and in expeditions as did the Greek and Roman Marines, 

There were men who performed the duty of Marines dur- 
ing the Discovery a.nd ExDloration Period of America. Dur- 
ing the Colonial Period ending with 1775 there were thou- 
sa.nds of men acting as \merican Ma.rines, and often called 
Marines, iwho served on the -nublic vessels of the Provinces 
or Colonies (on ocean, lake, and river), aboard the American 
privateers, and in many overseas expeditions against 'Icadia, 
Louisburg, Quebec, Cartagena., Porto Belle, Santia?co de Cuba, 
and other places. 

Three general cla.ses of !\merica.n Marines fought during 
the -American Revolution - Continental or Regular Ma.rines, 
Marines of the Sta.te Navies, a.nd Marines of the Privateers, 
The first American Marines, known of todav were the "Origi- 
nal Eight" of Connecticut who appeared in May of 1775. 
Others may have preceded them. Continental Congress, on 
November 10, 1775, created a Corps of Continental Marines. 
With the \rray a.nd Navy the Marines practically ceased to 
exist after the end of the x^merican Revolution, 

Ifhen the New Naw was created (from 1790 to 1798) 
Marines were authorized to serve on the frigates. Marines 
for the vessels of war were included in the Estimates sub- 
mitted from 1791 to 1797, The Acts of March 27, 1794, April 
20, 1796, and July 1, 1797 expressly provided Marine Cua.rds 
to serve on the frigates, ZHie earliest Marines of this per- 
iod, known of today, were m^-^ntioned in a letter da.ted Jan- 
uary 4, 1797, but unquestionably they were a.piDGinted and 
enlisted ra.rlier than tlhis. The Marines were under the 
jurisdiction of the Wa.r Department until A^ril 30, 1798 ^^^hcn 
Congress created the Navy Deioartraent, The present United 
States Marine Corps w^i.s created by the Act of Julv 11, 1798. 
Until June 30, 1834 the Ma.riaes served n shore under the 
Articles of War and afloat under the Articles for the Govern- 
ment of the Navy, After the above-mentioned date they were 
an integral part of the Navy unless deta.ched for service 
with the (Vrray by order of the President. 

-1- 



Uniforms -2- Ambricpn MFiTinrG 



UNIFORMS 

of the 

AMERICAN MARINES 



COLONIAL PERIOD 
1607-1775 

The uniforms of the Colonial Americ^^.n Marines , except 
the American Marines of Alexander Spots^'.'ood and William 
Gooch (x-'ho served under Admiral Vernon at Cartagena and in 
Cuba.) , are unknoi:''n at the present date. 

SpotsTOo d's or gooch^s Marines , 1740-1742: "Their 
uniform was camlet coats, bro^'^m linen t^aistcoa^ts , and can- 
vas trousers." (C-illes-oie , Hist. Review?', Royal Marine Corns, 
39-47; Nicholas, Hist. Records, Royal Ma.rine Forces, I, IS; 
Field, Britain's Sea Soldiers, I, 73; McClellan, Hist. U.S. 
M.C., 1st ed. , I, Ch, II, pry- 36-37, 119; Marine Corps Ga- 
zette, DecemlDer 1929). "Camlet" vrs^e a rough material, a, 
mixture of cotton and wool. (Field, Britain's Sea Soldiers, 
I, 88; Marine Corps Gazette, December, 1929; McClellan, 
Hist. U.S.M.C., 1st ed. , I, Ch. II, pp. 36-37, 118). 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION 
1775-1783 

Marine drums carried a Rattlesnake and the motto Don' t 
Tread on Me l (Bradford's Pennsylvania Journal and ^''eekly 
Advertiser, December 27, 1775) 

Green v:a,s the distinctive color of the Continental 
Marines' uniform. The officers rore small cocked hats ^-ith- 
out lace. In conformity vl th the universal fashions of the 
tim.e, they all Fore long hair, powdered, clubbed or cued, 
and dangling below the shoulder blade, (McClellan, Hist. 
U.S.M.C'.', 1st ed., I, Ch. IV, p. 6) 

Coats of green with ample skirts turned ba.ck, ■'"hite 
fa.cings and silver foul-anchor buttons vrere worn by the 
officers. The coat hari slashed sleeves 3nd. pockets and 
had buttons around the round cuffs. A silver epaulette 
was worn on the right shoulder. The ''"aist coat v-as of 
white material. The breeches ^'^ere ^'liite and edged ^^^ith 
green. Black gaiters were part of the uniform. The buttons 
were of silver and ca.rried a foul anchor, A s^'Ord and other 
necessary equipment vrere carried. (McClellan, Hist. U.S.^1.C. 
1st ed., I, Ch. IV, pp. 6-7) 



Uniforms -3- iVraerican Mp.,rines 



The "re3;iraenta.lB" of the enlisted men consiBted of a 
"o:reen coa.t ^idth red fa.cings,"; a. green shirt; a, "i''T.ite 
woolen jacket;" and a, "round hat with white oinding." His 
Gluttons were of pewter a,nd ca,rried a foul anchor."' (Mc- 
01ella,n, Hist. U.S.M.C., 1st ed. , I, Gh. IV, p. ?) 

Septera'oer 5, 1776 (Officers and Enlisted I?en): Iforine 
Oomrnittee prescribed the following uniform for Lfa.rine Off- 
icers: "A green coa.t fa.ced i^ith i-'hit e , round cuff, slashed 
sleeves and pockets, with buttons round the cuff, silver 
epaulette on the right shoulder, skirts turned back, buttons 
to suit the fa.cings; white waistcoat and breeches edged with 
green, blpck gaiters and garters; green shirts for the men 
if they ca.n be procured. " (Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant 
Archibald Henderson to Secretary of the Navy Levi T'^oodbury, 
S9 March 1833, Ila.vy Archives and Ma.rine Corps Archives; 
McClPllan, Hist. U.S.M.G., 1st ed. , I, Ch. IV, p. 24; The 
Leatherneck, April S, 1921, p. 4) 

April 11, 1778 (Enlisted Men): Lieutenant Villiam 
Jennison, jr., serving on the Boston , wrote in his Diary: 
"Wanted for the use and service of Marines belonging to 
this ship: 40 green coats farced with white, 40 ■'■liite wB.ist- 
coats, 40 white breeches, the buttons for the i^laole to be 
a plain white. Coats to be open-sleeved and a belt to every 
¥Jaistcoat," (Penna. Mag. of Hist, and Biog. , X\J , 101; Uc- 
Clellan, Histe U.S.M.C., 1st ed. , I, Ch. IV, p. 24) 

April 24, 1778 (Officers): Lady Selkirk in a letter to 
her husband, reg^rdino: the landing of John Paul Jones' 
Marines and Bluejackets on St. Mary's Isle, wrote thpt "of 
the two officers, one was a, civil young man [Lieutrnant 
Samuel "^allingf ord]j , in a, green uniform., aji anchor on his 
buttons, which were white. He came to the house in a, blue 
great-coat." (L^-'tters dated April 24, 1778 r^nd Ifev 15, 
1778, McClellan, Hist. U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. VI, pp. 
10, 41) ■ 

Ma.y 13, 1778 (Officers and Unlisted Men): Lieutena.nt 
^^^■illiam Jennison, jr., serving on the Bos_t_on wrote in his 
"Dl^Ty. "Regim'-ntals for the Marines and uniforms ordered 
by Conizrces" were brought on bo^rd and distributed to all 
officers and men. (Penna. Ma.oc. of Hist, and ^iog. , W, 101; 
McClellan, Hist. U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. IV, p. 24) 

Max 13 , 1778 (Enlisted M^n) : ^he diarv of John Adams 
contains the following regarding the Marines of the Ranger_: 
"After dinner, wa.lk^^d out with G-'ptains Jones and La.ndais, 

-3- 



tJniformB -4- American I'la.rines 



to see Jonee' ^fa^ines, dressed in the English uniform, red 
and ivhite. * * * Jones has art and secrecy, and aspires 
very high. You see the character of the man in his uniform 
and that of his officers a.nd Marines, variant from the 
uniforms esta.'olished by Congress - golden button-holes for 
himself, two epa.ulettes, - Marines in red and white, in- 
stead of green." (Works of John Adams, III, 201-202; Ilaval 
Institute Proceedings, XXXVII, IJo. 2, 470; McGlellan, Hist. 
U.S.M.C., 1st ed. , i, Ch. IV, p. 25; The Leatherneck, April 
2, 1921, p, 4). "I now distributed red clothes to ray men, 
and put some of them on boa.rcl the prizes, so as to give 
them the appearance of transports full of troops." (john 
Paul Jones quoted in "A G-enera.l View * * * of the Am.erican 
Navy," p. 53 citinsr IJiles Res^ister; Marine Corps Cazette, 
November, 1931, p. '32) 

February 28 , 1781 (Officers): No officer of Army or 
NaAry "shall wear any uniform usually worn by the British 
Array or Na.,vy. '^ (Secret Journals of Congress, I, 184) 

November 10, 1779 (Enlisted Men): The "regimentals" 
of the enlisted ra^n consisted of a. "green coa.t with red 
facing, ^vhite woolen ja.cket, light-colored cloth breeches, 
woolen stockings, a round hat ^-Ith white binding." (Penna. 
Crazette and TiJeckly x\dvertiser for November 10, 1779. See 
also id, November 17 and 34, 1779) 

Offi cers and Enlisted Meii: In 1833 President Andrew 
Jackson directed that the Uniform^ for the Marines be 
changed "making the Revolutionary Uniform the basis." 
The Commandant cited the uniform of September 5, 1776 and 
proposed a "green uniform coat * * * with buff facings * * * 
and light grey nantaloons." This uniform wa,s approved bv the 
President. "CJrass green cloth" coals "edged all round t;ith 
buff" and light grey cloth trousers "with buff cloth stripes"; 
"pea green cloth" frock coats indicating the colors used. 



State Marines ; The uniform of the Maryland State 
Marines Wcas a "blue hunting shirt;" that of the Pennsylvania 
State Marines wa.s a "brown coat faced with green, lettrrs 
1. P.B, on the buttons, and a oocked hat." (McClcllan, 
Hist, U.S.M.C, 1st cd,, I, Ch. IV, p. 24) 

With the Array and Na.vjA the Marines pra.c tic ally ccpscd 
to exist after the close of the American Revolution. 



-4- 



Uniforms -5- /Vraerica.n Marines 



PRE- CORPS UNIFORM 
1797-1798 

American Marines appr a.red with the beginning of the 
New Navy, During this period the],'- served under the War 
Department until" April 30, 1798 and from then, in general, 
under the Navy Department. Until June 30, 1834 Marines 
served ashore under the .Articles of War and afloat under 
the Articles for the Government of the Navy. 

\ugust 34 , 1797 (Lieutena.nt of Marines): Ooa.t Long: 
"blue; with long lappels of red; sta,nding colla.r and lining 
red; The lappels to have nine buttons, and one to the stand- 
ing collar « Three buttons to the pocket flaps and three to 
a slash sleeve with a red cuff. One gold Epaulet on the 
right shoulder for the Senior Lieutena.nt, where there are 
two Lieut cna.nts for the same ship, and one on the left 
shoulder for the second officer. Miere there is only one 
Lieutenant he is also to v/ea.r the Epaulet on the right 
shoulder. Trimmings plain. Vest and Breeches. The former, 
red with skirts 2 pocket flaps, but to have no buttons to 
the pockets. The latter blue - buttons for the suit the 
same as the Captains a,nd. Lieutenants. (Enlisted Men) : Plain 
short coa,ts of blue, ^^dth red belt, edged i^'ith red, and 
turned up with the same, with comm.on sm.all nava.l buttons, 
with blue pantaloons edged with red & red vests. - Captains, 
Lieut ena.nts , a,nd Marino officers to wear when full dressed 
cocked ha.ts with black cocka.deB, a,nd small sv.^ords (yellow 
mounted) - & when undressed such swords as may be hereafter 
fixed on, or ordered. * * * N.B. - Summer dress - Vests and 
breeches (excepting for Ma.rine Soldiers) to be white, or 
Na.nkeen, a,s may correspond with the Uniform, etc. Marines 
white linen overalls, (Original in Hist. Society Pennsylvania 
and photograDh in Navy Archives; see also McClellan, Hist. 
U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. IX, -ov- 15,~19T 

FRENCH NAVAL WAR 
1798-1801 

The United States Marine Corps as it exists, in general, 
today was crea,ted by the Act of July 11, 1798, Maj or^'williara 
Ward Burrows ¥;as the first Commandant, 

When Major Burrows entered upon his duties he found the 
Marines wearing the uniform prescribed by the Secretary of 
Wnr on Aiigust S4, 1797, This uniform was changed from' time 



-5- 



Uniforms ' -6- Amcricpn MlarinoB 



to time 'ov letter r of instruction. (McGlcllan, Hirt. 
U.S.M.C. ,' 1st od., I, Oh. XI, p. IB) 

The undress uniform of the officer v<rs a plnln blue 
frock ''dth buttons on tlie lapels. These buttons carried 
Rn e^gle with a shield on the left vin?^ enclosing p, foul 
anchor. A i^^hite vest and brc^.ches completed tlie undress 
uniform. The officers Fore epaulettes ^nd carried "?rilt- 
mounted" swords. (I'^cClellRn, Hist. U.S.M.O., 1st ed. , I, 
Oh. XI, p. 18) 

Privates rore p. blue cloth jacket, fj^.ced and cd2:ed 
^"Ith rod, red cuffs cut underneath, adorned v^-ith one small 
button. The hi^^h collar was of red material. \round the 
j a, ck e t vr p s p. t v- o i n ch r cd ■ b el t , The j p., c k e t had sh ou 1 d. r r 
str3ps edg;ed rith red endin;;^ in red r'in^s belo^' the shoiTlder. 
\ red vest ^-^as worn, (LIcOlellan, Eist. U.3.M.C., Ist cd. , 
I, Ch. XI, pp. 18-19) 

A "common woolen ha,t trimmed with yellow ^ turned ut) 
on the left side "^'ith a lea.ther cockpde," wp^s the hepd 
covering of the Private, Bla.ck leather stocks an'"" clasps, 
and shirt ruffles were supplied. These shirt ruffles ^-^ere 
described as "covers or busoms," that had collars with a 
piece in front to which p frill was atta.ched, "^hey were 
worn over the dark shirts as the "Dicky" is now v^orn. 'I'he 
fame of the Leather Stocks, and pieces of bla.ck leather in 
the rear of the hats "to avoid, the pc^'der", live toda.v in 
the good-natured sobriquet of Leathernecks « "he hair w,qs 
queued and powdered. (lIcGlellpn, Hist, U.S.LI.C, 1st ed., 
I, Gh. XI, p. 19) 

"Drums and If'ifes" v^ore a red cloth lapeled coat f^ced 
and edc^ed with blue with a blue belt edged with common 
yellow livery, blue cuffs, la.peled blue colla.rs edged vlth 
blue and blue shoulder straps edged with blue, with blue 
wingrs below the shoulder. (McClellan, Hist. U.3.I1.G,, 1st 
ed., I, Gh. XI, p, 19) 

Uniforms vrere difficult to secure and. variations from 
the authorized uniform were often necessitated c'^ing to the 
inpbility to obtain the proper ma.terip.l and competent ta.ilors, 
(McClellan, Hist. U.S.M.G., 1st ed. , I, Gh. XI, p. 19) 

Duty in the West India.n tropics made it essential tha.t 
a light weight uniform be designed. One called the "Sum.mex 
Dress" was provided and consiBted of a "Marine ja.cket" v-ith 

-6- 



Uniforms -V- American Marines 



Red cape, short skirt "a'^out six inches long", lapeled 
and only tv.ro buttons on each side, ma.de of "Russia Duck", 
a.nd the whole "5?' as bound with "Red Ferret," White linen 
overa.lls edeed. ^ith red viere v'orn. A frock mp,de of Russia 
Duok was frequently worn to sa.vc the uniform. (McClella.n, 
Hist. U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. XI, p. 20) 

The following was issued to each Marine annually, at 
a cost of twenty to twenty-five dollars: One coat, one 
hat, one vest, two pairs blue woolen overalls, two pa.irs 
linen overalls, four shirts, four shirts ruffles, four 
pairs shoes with strings or ribbands, one stock of black 
lea.ther and clasp, and ons bla.nket. (l;IcClellan, Hist. 
U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. XI, p. 20) 

At sea one "Grreat coat," or "Watch ccat," was issued 
to every two Marines. (McOlellan, Hist. U.S.M.C, 1st 
ed. , I, Ch. XI, X). 20) 

The noncommissioned officers' uniform x'^^as in general 
the same as the Privates' exceiDt tha.t it was of better 
material. The Sergeants wore two yellow silk epaulettes 
and the Corporals one. The Sergeants, but not the Corpor- 
als, carried swords i^lth "brass handles," The noncommission- 
ed officers wore plumes made of feathers. (McClella.n, Hist. 
U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. XI, p. 30) 

July 11, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "As to the cloathing 
for the Marines, Slops, and pursers accounts no arrange- 
ments have been made, except for the clothes, which are 
here, but which cannot be sent on, and I hope, are provid^ed 
at Boston." (Navy Department to Stephen Higginson, a,t 
Boston, 11 July 1798, Navy Archives) 

July 36, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "The Coat to be short, 
blue cloth, T'l th red belt, edged with red, and turned up 
with the sa,me, with common small Na -^/a.l buttons. The over- 
alls blue, edged with red, a.nd red vests." (Navy DeiDart- 
ment to William Pennock at Norfolk, 14 September 1798, 
General Letter Book, No. I, p. 244, Navy Archives) 

July 26, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "An order was given so 
long ago as the 11th July to forward on to you clothins: for 
the Marines for both ships. I find at this' late date, the 
order has not been executed. Be so good, therefore, as to 
have the clothing made in Ba.ltimore. Below yoTi have a 
description' - Four ha.ngers for the Noncommissioned Officers 



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Uniforms -8- American HarineG 



of Marines. * * * There v^ill be * * * wanted ifhicii you 
will please to have procured, agreeably to the encloBed 
list.' Marines; Plain short coats of blue, with a red 
belt edged v^ith red and triraed up with the same, vdth 
common sma,ll Naval buttons vath blue pB.ntaloons edged vith 
red 8.nd red Vests. Sergeants: The sa.rae color as above, 
the quality of the cloth better, with yellow epaulets. 
Musicians: Scarlet faced with blue, and raa.de in the same 
form a.s above." (Na,"^/^'' Department to Jeremiah Yellott, 
23 July 1798, Navy Archives) 

September 13, 1798 (Enlisted Men): The following was 
issued to ea„ch 1/Iarine annually, at a, cost of twenty to 
twenty-five dollars: One coat, one ha,t , one vest, tv/o 
pa.irs blue woolen overalls, two pa.irs linen overalls, four 
shirts, four shirt ruffles, four pairs of shoes with strings 
or ribbands, one stock of black leather and clasp and one 
blanket. (Secretary of the Navy 'Benjam.in Stoddert to 
Ebenezer Jackson, Sava.nnah Ga. , 12 September 1798, General 
Letter Book, Na'/y Archives) 

Sc-Q t ember 27, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "One black stock 
with clasp". (Burrows to Brown, 27 Septom.ber 1798, T'la.rine 
Corps Archives) 

October 9, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "Ea,ch must, have a 
complete suit, consisting of": "one wool hat, one coat, 
one vest, two p-^ir x^oolen overalls, two pair linen overalls, 
four shirts, four pair shoes, four pair socks, one stock and 
clasp, and one blanket." (Secretary Na^ry to Messrs. Cribbs an( 
Channing, 9 October 1798, General Letter' Book, No. I, pp. 322- 
323, Na.v^r A r ch i ve s ) 

October 12, 1798 (Officers): "The Undress of the Off- 
icers shall be a plp.in blup frock lapelled with N^.val 
buttons and white under cloaths," ("Rurrows to Second 
Lieutenant Henry Caldwell, 12 October 1798, Marine Corps 
Archi-^es) 

October 12 , 1798 (Enlisted Men): "Let the collar to 
the men's coats be made high, a,s it gua.rd^ against wet and 
cold," (Burrows to First Lieut en^rnt James ■'leaver, 12 October 
1798, Marine Corps Archives) 

October IV, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "Not to have the red 

belts more than two inches wide and to have the colla.r made 

high." (Burrows to Second Lieutenant Henry Caldwell, 17 
October 1798, Marine CoriDS Archives) 

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Uniforms -9- American Marines 



October 18 , 1798 (Enlisted Men): "In getting the 
CloBthG made I i"i sh vou vrould direct that the collar be 
made high, nnd thRt the red belt round the J-^cket be not 
more th^'n t^-'O inches wide. " (Burrows to First Lieut on ?^nt 
Diamond Oolton, 18 October 1798, Marine Corps A.rchives) 



October 30, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "Each man is a.lloT'ed 
one coat, one vest, t^rc pair linen overalls, two pair T^colen 
overalls, four pair shoes, four shirts, one stock and clasp, 
tT^'o socks and one hat and cockade, " (Burrows to Ca.ptain 
Lemuel Clark, 20 October 1798, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 26, 1793 (Officers): ""he Unciress of the 
Officers is a Plain blue frock, lapelled, naval buttons, 
such as we now wear, white vest a.nd breeches, with s^rie 
buttons," (Burrows to First Lieutena.nt Reuben Lilly, 26 
October 1798, Marine Corps Archives) 

O ctober 26, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "Blue cloth jacket, 
lapelled and faced ^^^ith red, edged with red and a. red belt, 
red cuffs cut underneath, with one small button; red collar, 
■I"! th a shoulder strap, edged -""^ith red, ending with red wings 
below the shoulder, one coat to each soldier. Red vest, 
blue woolen overalls with red seams, two to each; naval 
buttons to all, Viz: an Eagle, ^'ith a. shield on the left 
wing, enclosing a foul anchor. A common hat, trimmed vrith 
yellow, turned up on the left side I'dth a. le.ither cocka.de, 
one to each. White linen overalls, two to each. Stock and 
clasps, one to each. Shirts ruffles to the busom, four to 
each. Shoes, with strings, or ribband, two pairs to es-ch. 
Two Epaulets for each Sergea.nt, one Epaulet for each Corpor- 
al. The Epa.ulets are yellow silk. Drummers and Fifers 
dress: xled cloth coat, ^^'it h a blue belt, edged with common 
yellow livery, blue cuffs, edging the same, blue colla.r, 
edging the same, with a blue shoulder strap edging the 
Same, ending with blue wings, belci" the shoulder and edging 
the same. " (Burrows to First Lieutenant Reuben Lilly, 26 
October 1798, Marine Corps Archives) 

November 9, 1798 (Enlisted Men); "If you possibly 
can ha.ve the men measured for their Cloaths they would look 
much better, H-^ve their collars made higher, as it de- 
fends them from wet and cold, and let the red belt be not 
more than two inches v^ide. We find it looks handsomer." 
(Burrows to First Lieutenant "/illiam Cammack , 9 TTovomber 
1798, Marine Corps Archives) 

-9- 



Uniforms -10- American Marines 



November L4, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "13 Epaulets and 
SiTOrds" . TBurrovrs to First Lieutenant John Hall, 14 
November 1798, Marine Gorps Archives) 

December 5, 1793 (Enlisted Men): Watch coats - "one 
coat for every two Marines". (Secretary of the Na^z-y to 
Stephen Hinsrinson, 3 December 1798, Navy (General Letter 
Book, I, 417-418) 



December 10, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "I shall allow 
six ¥'atch coats to e?oh Detachment." (Burrows to Second 
Lieutena,nt John L. Lewis, 10 December 1798, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

December 13 , 1798 (Enlisted Micn ) : "Seven ^atch coats 
will be allovred your detachment, be sure you get them," 
(Burrows to First Lieutenant David Stickney, 13 December 
1798, Marine Corps A.rchives) 

D ecemb er 15, 1798 (Enlisted Men): "Epa,ulets and 
ewords''^ (burrows to First Lieutenant Williaja Camnack, 13 
December 1798, Marine CorDS Archives) 

December 15, 1798 (Enlisted I'len) : "■''^atch coats ^-'ill 
be allowed one to each three llarines". (Burrows to First 
Lif^utena,nt Reuben Lilly, 15 December 1798, Marine Gorps 
Archives) 

December 34, 1793 (Enlisted Men): Hats, Cockades, 
Epaulets, Sergeant's Shirts, socks, stocks and clasps, 
woolen overa.lls, Sergeant's overalls, Privates' shirts, 
Privates^ vests. Sergeant's vests. Drummers^ coa.ts, 
Sergeants' coats, Privates' coats, linen overalls, shoes. 
(Burrows to Second Lieutenant Henry A. Williams, 34 
December 1798, Marine Corps Archives) 

December 39 , 1798 (Enlisted :/Ien) : "Sergeant's swords 
have brass nandles, and epaulets a,re made of yellow silk. 
* * * You will find by my last to vou that the Secretary 
has allowed, one watch coat to two men. It is very liberal 
and I am gla.d of it. The order I first gave ^'as in conse- 
quence of economy being a.l^-^avs held up to me." (Burro"^fS 
to Stephen HiQ^gin?on, 39 December 1798, Marine Corps 
\r chives) 

January 9, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Blue clcth jacket 
lap'^^lled and fa.ced ^'1 th red edgi^d i-ltn red and red belt 
red cuffs cut underneath with one ^^mall button, red collar 

-10- 



Uniforms -11- Arncrica.n Marines 



with a Bhculcler strpp edged v^'ith rod ending with wings 
below the shoulder. One coat to each soldier. Red vest. 
Blue v;oolen overalls v^th red seams, two to each. llpvql 
buttons to all, viz. an Eagle with a shield on the left 
wing enclosing the foul anchor, A common hat trimmed -"^rith 
yellow, turned up on the left side with a lea.ther cockade, 
one to each. White linen overalls, two to each. Stocks 
and cla.SDS, one to each, leather. Shirt ruffles to the 
Busora, four to ea.ch. Two epaulets for each sergeant and 
one for each Corporal. The epaulets are to be yellow 
silk, (Drummers and Fifers Dress): Red cloth coa.t ^^'ith 
a blue belt ■edged with common yellow livery, blue cuffs 
edging the same, blue collar edging the same, iifith a blue 
shoulder strap edging the same, ending with blue wings 
below the shoulder and edgincr the same. '^ (Burrows to 
First Lieutenant Philip Edivards, 9 Janua.ry 1799, 
Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

January 36 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "The price cf Marine 
clotring is herewith enclosed a,s per ccntraGt here * * *:" 
Sergea.nts coats is |7.13; Sersceants vests, .f3.25; L. over- 
hauls, i$1.54; ■'Joollen overhauls, ;?2.50; Shirts, -■1.43; 
Socks, 9 Cts; Drummers coats, $7.13; Drummers vests, i^pl.SO; 
Linen overhauls, ;i^l.40; Woollen overhauls, $1,75; Shirts, 

|l.25; Socks, ; Priva.tes coats, ^?4.88; Priva.tos vests, 

$2.00; Priva.tes Shirts, j|l.25; W. overhauls, $1.75; L. 
overhauls, ;-?1.40; * * *^ |l.50. "\ compleat suit is valued 
8,t (tp32,34." (Burrows to 7irst Lieutenant Philip Edwards, 
26 Janua.ry 1799, Iferine Corps Archives) 

March 11, 1799 (Enlisted M.en) : "With respect to the 
Cloathing I must acquaint you that thirty-five suits a.re 
alrea.dy made, and twenty-five of them on the Marines' 
baoks. I must therefore request that you urge the Secre- 
tary to write Captain Yellott on this subject." (First 
Lieutenant Philip Edwards at Baltimore to Burrows, 11 
March 1799, Marine Corps :\rohives) 

March 16 , 1799 (Enlisted Men) : "Procure and deliver 
to Captain Cill, fifty swords for the Sergeants of the 
Marine Corps, You may consult with Major Burrows respect- 
ing what kind of swords are most propers" (Navy Depart- 
ment to Tench Francis, 16 March 1799, Havy \rchives) 

March 22 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Cloaths must b^:^ alter- 
ed by the Taylors of the Corps, or at the Men's expense." 
(Burrows to First Lieutenant Jonathan Church, 22 March 1799, 
Marine Corps \rchives) 



Uniforms -12- .Vrnerican !Iarines 



\pril 13 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "I wish to kno^' whether 
I am to be supplied by Captain Pennock ^^'ith Summer Cloths 
for my men as those I have got stand much in need. " (First 
Lieutenant '.Villiam Cammack at Norfolk to Burrows, 13 V^ril 
1799, Marine Corps \rchives) 

April 13 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "According to your 
orders I proceeded to Duck Creek Gross Roads and after two 
days detention received from Daniel Cook the following 
Marine Cloathing, viz: two coats, eight vests, six pair 
linen overalls, fourteen pa.ir shoes, fourteen pair socks, 
three knapsacks, one hat, three cockades, and six blanket s," 
(First Lieutenant Philip Edwards at Baltimore to Eurro'-g, 12 
'iDril 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

Aioril 39 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "You were wrong in 
giving him, or any Marine, all their Cloa thing at once. 
When a m.an is enlisted, if it be in Winter, I gi-'^e him 
Winter Oloathing only, if in Summer, Sum.mer Cloathing." 
(Burrov-'S to First Lieutenant Jonathan Church, 39 April 
1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 13, 1799 (Enlisted. Men): "A num.ber of the Marines 
have lost their hats overboa.rd b^ accident, and I have pro- 
cured others for them. Will Covornment allow them or riust 
they pay for them themselves. The hats that I received from 
the :\gent for them., were of a bad qua.lity. After they ha.d 
been wet ^ few times they cracked and broke very m.uch, so 
b'^dly that some are worn out, and I have replaced them by 
others." (First Lieutenant David Stickney on Merrimack a.t 
Nantasket Ro^d, 13 May 1799, .Marine Corps Archives) 

May 15, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "He took with him one 
red wqistcoat, a. ppir white trousers, with the naval buttons 
on same; one pair new shoes, one new shirt, one old plain 
shirt, a. clasp and stock, one old round hat without trim- 
m.ings." (Second Lieutenant John Claypoole at "^renton, IT. J. 
to Burrows, 15 I^ay 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 30, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Captain Tingey and I 
agreed to sell all his clothing, at the Mast, as is customary 
in such cases at sea * * * Brown tells mo Wilson has gone 
on boa.rd of an English privateer a,s Capt. of ^•'tarines. I 
only wish I could come across him. and I i^ould take his epaule 
off his shoulder. Before we s-^iled from Hampton Roads some 
of the Tien agreed to buy a piece of clcth to make their 
uniform, which I persuaded the Purser to buy, ^nd char2:e to 
the men that took it as pay." (First Lieutenant \nthony 
a.ale at St. Kitts, Basseterre, to Burrows, 20 May 1799,* • 
Ma.riic Corps Archives) 

-13- 



UniforniB -13- American M?^rinrs 



May 31, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "You are to inform them 
* * * v^iiat they are to receive * * * one coat, one vest, t\vo 
TDair woolen overalls and two pair linen overalls, four nhirte, 
four pair shoes, four pair socks, one blanket, one hat, one 
stock and clasp, and more rations than they generally can 
eat," (BurroTiTS to Second Lieutenant Nev'ton Kcene, 21 M^y 
1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 31 , 1799 (Enlisted Men).: "When men lose their 
Ha.ts or a,ny property ^iven them "by the Publick it must "be 
replaced out of their Pay. As to thf^ Oloa.ths of the 
deceased it will never do to be encumbered -w/ith them. "^he 
best mode mil be to sell them to the highest bidder amongst 
the Marines if they are worth anything and let the Purser 
or yourself a,ccount for the money. If the Cloa.ths are not 
worth preserving, throF them overboa.rd." (Burrows to First 
Lieutenant David Stickney, 21 May 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 24, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "I will thank you to order 
for the Ma.rines on bo^rd the Herald the following articles 
for the Sergeant, the Corporal, and twelve Privates. They 
have not uftccived their Cloathing a.llowod them, "hev have had 
seven Great Goa,ts which v^ere expended on board the Ship and 
will be accounted for: one coat, one T"aistcop.t, two pair vrool 
pantaloons, one hatt, one stock and cla.sp, one cockade." 
(Lieutenant Cha.rles C. Russell, U.S. Navy, on the U.S.S. 
Herald at New Castle, 24 May 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 26, 1799 . (Enlisted Men): "I have sent my Adjutant 
down to furnish some Cloathing to the Marines. If they h^.d 
seven great coats it is as much as they were entitled and 
more they will not receive." (Burrows to Lieutenant Charles 
C. Russeil, U.S. Navy on Herald , 26 May 1799, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

May 50 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "They are very m.uch in 
want of outside jackets * * * The C-reat Coats I must get 
for them and charge to the ship as they were expended for 
Ship's use." (Lieutenant Charles C. Russell, U.S. Navy on 
Herald off Cape Henlopen, 30 May 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

June 7, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Each Recruit wm be 
allowed for each year, one coat, one vest, one hat, two p^ir 
of woolen a.nd two pair of linen overalls, four shirts, four 
socks, four pair of shoes, one blanket, one stock and clasp." 
(Burrows to Second Lieutenant John Howard, 7 June 1799, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

-13- 



Uniforms -14- ilnierican MaTines 



June 13 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "My men's clothing are 
all too small and their shirts and Summer Clothing are 
almost all of Cotton, which on being Fashed in Salt Wa.ter 
turn very yelloi;^' and come all to rags, I think it very 
necessary that they h^ve some sort of ga.rment for then to 
do their dirty work in, a.s their Uniform alloT^fed by (lovern- 
raent will not la.st them not more than one half the year. 
Ours are all to rags no?'. Their hats also are many of 
thera lost overboard. " (First Lieutenant Diamond Colton at 
Newport, R.I. to Burrows, 13 June 1799, Ma,rine Gonos 
Archives) 



June 15 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Ea.ch recruit will be 
allowed for one yea.r, one hat, one coat, one vest, two 
woolen and two pair of linen overalls, four shirts, four 
socks, four pair of shoes, one blanket, one stock and 
clflsp, " (Burrox'TS to Sergeant Ja.raes P, Mix, 15 June 1799, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

June 24, 1799 (Enlisted Men) : "It is my pa.rticular 
orders thai all Sentries be in uniform, and have their hair 
powdered. * * * you must recommend to such officers, as 
you meet, thai they provide their men i^lth hals and such 
pa.rts of their Dress as they shall losr out their own pqy 
anri they must be ma.de to understand th^t no excuse is to be 
taken for a Soldier wanting any part of his Uniform. "here- 
fore if anything is lost it must be replaced out of thnir 
money." (Burrows to Captain Franklin ^Tiarton, 24 June 1799, 
Ma.rine Corps ;\rGhives) 

July 9, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Captain Oa.rmick ta.s 
^iven orders to tailors to make clothing for the men." 
(Second Lieutenant Edward H^ll, jr., at New York, to 
Burrows, 9 July 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

July 13, 1799 (Enlisted Men) : "Bradbury got some new 
fine clothing made exclusive of that given him by the public. 
Captain Carmick gave an order for the same and his pay win 
not be sufficient to discha.rge the bill. I win make every 
man lay out his money in clothing. The Marines pre the 
cleanest Troops in New York." (Second Lieutenant Edward 
Hall, jr., at New York to Burrows, 13 July 1799, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

July 29, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "You also wish to know 
wh-^t clothing each man has had. They have had from me one 
hatt, one coat, two pair L. or Woolen Overalls, one vest, 

-14- 



UniforraB -15- A.raeric?^n Marines 



two phirtfi, tFo p-Tir shooe, one i5tock, onr blanket -?no 
sorae of thei'n two P'^lr eockB, Scrgoant Davis and the t^'O 
?oys , Daly and Fryer, I have given a.d.di tiona.l clothing 
tod.a.y - tvro pa.ir overalls, two p.hirts, one linen vest, and 
two pair shoes, which I suppose they a.re entitled, to." 
(First Lieutenant Williara Cararna.ck -at Norfolk to Burrows, 
29 July 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

August 17 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "I send an account 
of clothing delivered each ma.n inlieted by me. You will 
please to observe those that have linen overalls ha.ve ^ 
linen vest instead of a woolen one." (First Lieutenant 
Williara Cararaa.ck, at Norfolk, 17 August 1799, !.!a,rine Corps 
Archives) 

Au.gust 24, 1799 (Enlisted Men) : "I find it inpossible 
to keep my men clean they must be granted a, sailor suit of 
clothes besides their uniform if it is expected for them to 
be kept decent, I have given them all clothes and still 
they are not decent one month after they receive them. " 
(Captain Daniel Carmick at Hampton Roads, 24 Au<rust 1799, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

September 27, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Every Sentry must 
be Full Dressed and pc'^dered if possible." (Burrows to 
First Lieutenant Benjamin Strother, 27 Sept f-mber 1799, 
Marine Corps \rchives) 



October 1, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Every Sentry should 
be well dressed (and Powdered) if possible whilst on duty. 
(Burrows to Second Lieutenant Thomas Hoit rHoist"! , 1 
October 1799, Mari le Corps Archives) "^ 

October 4, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "I ha.ve delivered to 
Sergeant Rose for the use of the Marines on bO'-^.rd the 
Brig S camme ll, 13 pair woolen overalls, 19 pair socks and 
twelve shirts. " (Second Lieutenant Michael Revnolds to 
Burrows, 4 October 1799, Marine Corps .\rchives) 

October 6, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "The extra clothing 
on board the Montezuma is of a very inferior quality, the 
hats altogether improper, as they are Artillery hats. I 
should be glad to know wha.t to do with them." (First 
Lieut ena.nt Philip Edwaxds at Bpltim.ore to Burrows, 6 
October 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 



-15- 



ir 



Uniforms -16- .\merican Marinee 



llovpnber 11 , 1799 (Enlisted Men): "The t^-o crords 
which I left an order for vliilet I ito.s last at Philadrlphia, " 
(gpcond Lirutf^nant Michael Reynolds ^,t NeT' York to Burrows, 
11 Noverrroer 1799, M^^rine Cor-ps ArchivoB) 

DcccmiQcr 3, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "Your ordering q. 
Suit of Clop.ths for the Q:i"^nt q.s you term him, is inqdmise- 
ible unless it comes out of his pay. If p suit of deaths 
does not fit a I/Iarine, he must no t^-'ith standing: receive 
them and pay for the alterations. Perhaps, the best mode 
■mill be for him to sell the publick suit to some other 
Marine," (Burrows to First Lieutenant 3. W. Geddis, 3 
Decc?fnber 1799, Marine Corps Archives) 

December 8_, 1799 (Enlisted Men): "I have received 
by the Schooner Dove one hogshead and four cases contain- 
ing a quantity of Marine Clothing and arms which, on 
examination, I found correct I'-ith the list sent on, except 
three Stocks and two Clasps wanting," (First Lieutena,nt 
Willia.m Cammiack at Norfolk, to Burrows, 8 December 1799, 
Marine Corps \rchives) Crape for Washington ^ s Death 

December 20 , 1799 : O rdered by Gir & "ien Ords No. 1, Navy Arch, 

January 8 , 18QQ (Enlisted Men): "I had drawn from. 
Captain Clark wha..t extra cloathing etc. I supposed necessary 
for my Detachment, a list of "'hich I no^^ enclose you * * * 
Among then are sixty frocks calculated for the climate we 
have to serve in." (First Lieutenant Benjamin Strother to 
Burrows, 2 January 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

March 31 , 1800 (Enlisted Men): "The Secretary has 
consented tha.t I may advance a m.onth's pay to the Men if 
they choose to purchase summer deaths for themselves. In 
this case you must purchase some Russia Duck and have coats 
made up im.mediately on the most reasonable terms. The 
coa.t must be lapelled, have a. red cape, two buttons on 
ea.ch side the lapells and have a short skirt. The whole 
to be bound with Reel Ferret, "'^fith the pa.v due xhem and 
the m.onth's advance vou can ha\'e tivo coats for e-^ch ^nd 
a pair of overalls, which if edged •'■■dth red, will look very 
handsome." (Burrows to First Lieutenant B. Clinch, 31 
March 1800, Marine Corps \rchives) 

March 31, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "I have adopted a 
Summer Dress for the Marines. A white linen jacket "Ith 
a red cape lapelled i-lth t^o buttons on each and bound 
with red ferrett and a. very small skirt." (Burrows to 
First Lieutenant Benjamin Strother, 31 March 1800, Marine 
Qoxyx- Archives) 

-16- 



Uniforms -17- American Marinns 



April 89, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "I have ordcrrd -^ 
Sumner Dre'ss for the Marines, of Ruspia Duck ^^dth a small 
skirt oound with rod ferret and standing red Ccpos of cloth. 
The coat is lapolled, tno buttons on each side. The over- 
alls are edged with red." (Burro^^'S to First Lieutenant 
Penja.min 'Strother, 29 April 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

LI ay 9 , 1800 (Enlisted !/[en) : "I never allo^^' more than 
four s^-'^ords to 60 men," (Burrows to Captain Lemuel Clark, 
9 May 1800, Ma,rine Corps Archives) 

May 9, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "The coa.t is made of a 
Russia Duck, lapelled ^'Ith a skirt about six inches long-, 
the whole bound with red Ferret, and a red Ca.pe of Cloa,th, 
two buttons on each side of the lapell. " (Burrows to 
Captain Lem.uel Cla.rk, 9 May 1800, Ma,rine Corps Archives) 



May 15 , 1800 (Enlisted Men): ""here has been adopted 
a Summer Dress for the Marines, a, white linen coa.tec made 
of Russia Duck with a red cape, Lapelled with two buttons 
on each side bound Ferret and a small skirt about six inches 
long; overalls edged with red." (Burrows to Captain Lem.uel 
Clark, 13 May 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 30., 1800 (Enlisted Men): "Your men must be pro- 
vided with Summer Cloaths out of their own pocket * * * 
So a,s to have them all aJike, let every man be measured, 
tha.t his cloaths may fit him. I now send you a, pattern 
of the coat for which I cha.rge you !v4,00. The pantaloons 
a.re edged with red and the recruits who draw prefer having 
their new Pantaloons edged with red. When you give out the 
Summer Cloaths you must give them all the same day. Two 
coats at lea.st ought to be provided as they cannot br kept 
clean." (Burrows to Second Lirutenant Edward Hall, 20 
May 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

May . 27, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "As to hair powder, you 
are to get it from the Purser, and if the Captain •'"^ont .^llo^ 
it you must go without; but the la,w had provided for their 
receiving it." (Burrows to Second Lieutenant Samuel 
Llewellyn QLlewellirTj , 87 May 1800, Marine Corps \rchives) 

June 14 , 1800 (Enlisted Men) : "In speaking of hair 
powder, it is only meant flour, and on all particular 
occasions, it is allowed to all Marines, ':!he sentry at 
the Captain's door ou.^ht always to be particularly clean 
a,nd powdered as he is more conspicuous than any other 



-17- 



Uniforms -18- .-Vmerican Marines 



soldier. By permitting them to have flour or hair po^^'-rlcr , 
it instils pride into them and gives them a habit of clean- 
liness. " (Burrows to Second Lieutena.nt Samuel LleT^^ellyn 
[jjlewellin] , 14 June 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

July !_, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "The men have dra^rn 
clcathing but did not appear willing to adopt the measure 
proposed for the Summer Dress." (First Lieutenant Benjamin 
Strother to BurroT^'S, 1 July 1800, Marine Corps \rchives) 

August 1, 1800 (Enlisted Men) : "By the instructions 
of the Commodore, Blue Jackets have been made for the men 
of double t^i-.'illed serge to wear Fhen off duty. I have 
persuaded him to give me an indent for Hair powder for the 
cruize which he has done." (First Lieutenant John L. Lewis 
to Burrows, 1 August 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

August 1, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "Dunlap's coats have 
been disposed of but some of the men refused receivine; an^/ 
other articles except those allowed by the U.S. whilst 
others have ta.ken two coa.ts each, " (First Lieutenant John 
L. Lewis to Burrows, 1 ^August 1800, I^Tarine Corps Archives) 

August 19, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "Sentries that are 
in view should be powdered if possible," (Burrows to 
First Lieutenant Jona.than Church, 19 August 1800, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

August 19, 1800 (Enlisted Men): "I hope the r^en have 
all adopted the Summer Dress. " (Burrows to Captain Lem.uel 
Clark, 19 :\ugust 1800, Marine Corps \rchives) 

\u.gust 31 , 1800 (Enlisted Men): "The Winter Clcath 
should be ca.refully pa.cked up, and not given out to one 
till given out to all, tha,t they m.ay appear equally well 
dressed." (Burrows to First Lieutenant James Weaver, 21 
August 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

August 31 , 1800 (Enlisted Men): "When you give Coats 

and Hats you should give them toget' er , that all m.ay a-prDear 

alike," (Burrows to Captain Lemuel Clark, 31 Augrust 1800, 
Marine CoriDS Archives) 

Ser)t ember 8_, 1800 (Enlisted Men) : "I am 2;lad to hea^r 
tlia t the men like the Summer Dress, a.nd hope they will all 
get them.selves a Coat, as it ^"ill be tim.e enough to put 
another Winter Dress on 1st November and I prefer ta.king 
care of it for them till then that they all look alike." 
(Burrows to Ca.ptain Da.niel Carraick, 8 September 1800, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

-18- 



Un if or me -19- American Marines 



O ctober 3, 1800 (Officers): "The Orders before I 
comraandcd the Corps nere for every Lieutenant i''ho comnand- 
ed a Detachment to i^--ear the Epaulet on the right shoulder 
whilst on boa.rd the vessel. I think it abused and there- 
fore never issued it in orders, for it m.ust be unpleasant 
to the Officer to wear it on the left shoulder, nlien he 
joins US, after being accustomed to wearing it on the right. 
\B to yourself, after you go on bo8.rd it i^lll be nroper 
in you to place the epaulet on the right shoulder, for I 
am almost certain you will be a First Lieutenant in the 
beginning of November." (BurroT''s to Second Lif^utena^nt 
Franklin '"^harton, 3 October 1800, !1arine Corps Archives) 

N ovember 7, 1800 (Enlisted Men); "The pa,"tern of the 
Hat is a,t Captain Gill's, the Cockades a.nd every oth^^r 
a.rticle can be procured at Phila.delphia except the Hats, 
which Ca.iotain G-ill ca,n inform you where they ^re to be h^d." 
This letter mentions Ha,ts and Cockades, Stocks and clapps, 
Sergeants' s^i^ords, "Epa^ulets for Sergeants and Corporals." 
(Burrows to Israel Ti/heeler, 7 November 1800, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

November 38 , 1800 (Enlisted Men): "Four v^atch coats, 
51 hats and cockades, 100 shirts, four Sergeants' shirts, 
100 P'-^lr of linen overalls, 102 pairs of shoes, 102 pp.irs 
of socks," (Burrows to GaTDtain Fra.nklin ^fha.rton, 28 Novem- 
ber 1800, Marine CorDS Archives) 

December 20, 1800 (Enlisted Men): Letter mentions 
Sergeant ' s coa.t , Sergeant ' s veot , Sorgea.nt ' s shirt , t-'oolen 
overalls, epaulets, Drummer's coat. Private's coat, hats, 
cockades, stocks and clasps. (Burrows to First Lieutenant 
Anthony Cale, 20 December 1800, Marine Corps Archives) 

December 30 , 1800 (Enlisted Men): "In that cold 
climate every ma.n ought to purchase a Great Coat for himself. 
The public do not allow I'vatch Coa.ts to every ma.n. " (Burrows 
to First Lieut ena.nt Jonathan Church, 30 December 1800, 
Ma.rine Corps Archives) 



TRIPOLI TAN 17AR 
1801-1805 



During the period 1801 to March of 1804 the Uniform, 
^'ith but few changes, continued a,s before. '^he first formal 



-1Q~ 



Uniforms -20- American I'larines 



Uniform Order came on March 25 or 23, 1804. (McOlellan, 
Hist. U.S.M.C., 1st ed, , I, Ch. XVI, p. 4l) 

January 1 , 1801 (Enlisted Men): "The men complain 
they have been sent to sea without their Winter Cloaths. 
This must certainly be very q-reat neglect for Lieutenant 
Howa,rd could have got them from Captain Wharton * * * Re- 
quest the men to rmrchase some Fooien cloaths for them- 
selves and on their return I shall see justice done them.. 
* * * The Summer Coats may remain on board. They a.re 
private property." (Burrows to First Lieutenant Henry 
Caldwell, 1 Ja,nuary 1801, Marine Corps Archives) 

January 5, 1801 (Enlisted Men): "The woolen cloa.ths 
will be first wanted. The red belt must be na.rrow anc' 
made agreeable to the last pattern. " (Burrows tc Thomas 
Billington, 5 January 1801, I/iarine Corps Archives) 

Janu ary 13 , 1801 (Enlisted Men): "Immediately call or 
send to Billington and desire him to ma.ke at lea.st one 
hundred suits of the very largest measure. The Cloaths 
you sent to Lieutenant Amor^/ are too smia.ll but you c^nnct 
with propriety send him. others. You must ■^-rite him that 
the men must -ourchase the little trifle of cloth wanted 
and increa.se the size of their coats by employing our tav- 
lors." (Burrows to Captain Franklin Wharton, 13 Januarv 
1801, M.axine Corps Archives) 

January 13, 1801 (Enlisted Men): "The Cloa.ths which 
have been sent you by Captain Wha.rton must be made to fit 
the men. Sometimes their coats are too large, sometimes 
too smell. The expense of altering must come out of their 
own Dockets for they will receive no others in their room." 
(Burrows to First Lieutenant William Amory, 13 January 1801, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

February 10, 1801 (Enlisted Men): "Cloathing is fur- 
nished by contract for the whole Ma.rine CorTos at the same 
time, and I s.ra not authorized to order a, single suit r.a.de 
or to give orders to any one for providing clcathing. If 
there is money due I can authorize it to be naid, so as to 
enable such Marines to purchase cloaths for himself till 
they can be forwarded from Head Quarters." (Burrows to 
Stephen Kigginson and Co., 20 February 1801, Marine Corps 
x\r chives) 



-20- 



Uniforms -21- American Marines 



February 18, 1801 (Enlisted Men): If Sergeant N.F. 
Mix "still wisiT^ to be disclia.recd "I will consent on the 
following; terms:" That "you enlist a man for three years" 
and "give him on^ hat and cockade, stock and cla.sp, one copt, 
one vest, two loair of woolen loantaloons, two shirts and two 
pairs of shoos, so that the Publick are not to be at any 
expense." (Burrows to Sergeant N.F, I'lix, 18 February 1801, 
Marine Corps \rchives) 

\pril 3_, 1801 (Enlisted Men) : "The number of the linen 
Jackets laid in bv the Quartermasters Sergeant ha.ve not been 
issued. Be plea.sed Sir to instruct me in what manner I can 
settle with him for them." (First Lieutena.nt Henry Caldwell 
to Burrows, 3 April 1801, Marine Corps Archives) 

April 3_, 1801 (Enlisted Men) : "I have been pretty 
liberal in issu. ing Cloths, which is in consequence of our 
coming on the coast a.t so Yexy inclement a season of the 
year. This I had lon?^ had in view a/nd was prepared, having 
reserved all the woolen cloths I could for that ^ourpose and 
indeed it had the desired effect for we have had. a great 
deal of very cold and wet weather * * * the Marines are, I 
believe, better clothed at present than they ha.ve ever been 
at any previous period. All except Uniform Ha.ts in xThich 
we are generally deficient," (Second Lif^utenant Samuel 
Llewellin on Freiga.t e Con£re_ss_, President Roads, Boston, 
3 April 1801, Marine CorDS Archives) 

April S, 1801 (Enlisted Men): "Cnptain Derby ha.s shoT^ni 
me your letter to him recjuesting him to receive on bO'-^rd the 
Connecticut , the Marines of the Trumbull , and by his advice 
I ha.ve supplied them with sundry: articles of Cloathincr of 
which they were in grea.t want. * * * There ?^re no woolen 
pantaloons in the Cloathing I found here and they would be 
much benefited, in appearance at lea.st, could they obtain 
them." (Second Lieutenant Thorans W. Hooper, at Hew London, 
Connecticut, to Burrows, 6 April 1801, Marine Oorios Archives) 

April 30 , 1801 (Enlisted Men): "It will be prober you 
take Shirts, linen Panteloons & Shoes on vour Vo-''-age, the rest 
of the Articles must be left behind for the first Officer 
who may arrive with a memorandum, a copy of which a.s well as 
the articles you take yourself must be forwarded to the Quarte: 
Ma.ster. ^ou win let me know the probable time you will leave 
New York." (Burrows to Second Lieutenant PhiliD Alexander, 20 
Ipril 1801, Marine Corps Archives) 

-21- 



Uniforms -23- American Ma.rinee 



April 30 , 1801 (Enlisted Men): "Summer cloths & neces- 
saries cfln be furnished as before, but nothing will be admittf 
without Toroper vouchers," (Eurrov^s to Captc3ln James McKni^ht 
30 \iDril 1801, I/Iarine Corps Archives) 

May 9, 1801 (Enlisted Men): "Enquire of your men first 
if they are ^'illinsc to purcha.se Sumimer Coats, If they are 
then lourchase a^ q^ antity of Russia Duck so that it mp.y 
come reasonable to the men." (Burrovrs to First Lieutenant 
Newton Keene, 9 May 1801, Marine Corps Archives) 

June 1_, 1801 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Yours of 
the 29th ult. came regularly to hand. I called on the French- 
man and sooke to him respecting: the plume to be i^'orn by the 
noncommissioned officers of our corps, r^'hich at present he 
ca,nnot undertake to make, having no fea.thers tha.t i^^dll ansi^'er 
but there is a. ""'oman in Third Street T-ho follc^s that businesi 
altogether ^lio i^rould contract to m^ke them for '|lO.CO per 
dozen, I'hich I belifve are better term.s than could be obtain- 
ed from the Frenchman, were he provided with fea.thers. The 
old Frenchman grumbled in French a great deal of ill-humor, 
when I demanded of him the balance overcharged in the Drice 
of your epaulets, but I told him it wa.s a, dishonest advantage 
he had taken in your absence a.nd that if he ever presumed 
to do a thing of the kind again, it ^''ould certainly lessen 
him very much in the estimation of the Corps; i^hen, shrugging 
up his shoulders and sm.iling very good na.turedly, he said 
it should be returned with pleasure. Therefore, you must 
permit me to congratulate you on the fortunate and pleasing 
terraina.tion of this business and to advise that I hold sub- 
ject to your order or draft, pa.yable at sight, the sum above 
specified." (Second Lieutenant Edward Hall to Second 
Lieutenant John R. Fenwick, 1 June 1801, Marine Cor-os 
Arc.iives) 

June 11 , 1801 (Officers): "You v-m take care that no 
Officer of the M;^rine Goros, falling under your notice, 
shall presume to alter the Uniform ^"ithout a special order. 
Cxold Lace is loarticularly forbid on any pa, rt of the Uniform." 
(Burrows to Ca.ptain Franklin Vfnarton, il June 1801, I-Iarine 
Corps Archives) 

Missing Archives 

July 1, 1801 to March 19 , 1803 ; Marine Corps Letter 
Book (Letters SentJ ' for da.tes between July 1, 1801 and 
March 19, 1803, is missing from the Archives. Any Order 

-22- 



Uniforms -23- Vmerica.n liar in cs 



Book that miQ;ht have been DreDared prior to August 23, 1803 
is also missins? frora the Archives. Thus, informption con- 
cerning Marine Corps Uniforms for this period is limited. 

July 9, 1801 (Enlisted Men): "My Marines look well. 
I ha,ve issued to each man new clothing •'^'hich I do not suffer 
them to Fear, except upon pa.rticula.r occasions. Commodore 
Dale and Captain James Barron to v^hom I am much indebted for 
their great attention to me appea.rs much pleased vith the 
detachm.ent. Lieutenant Sterrett speaks highly in fa.vor of/<c: 
Lieutenants Fenwick and Johnson. I am sorry to say that theN 
latter gentleman's detachment is not so brilliant as I could 
wish 0"i';ing to their i^i-vant of clothing, I have delivered to 
Lieutenant Fenwick ■'^■'lia.t coa.ts and vests I could spare, and 
had requested of Lieutenant Alexander to inform me ^^^hat 
quantity of clothing he had on board the Essex for the use 
of his detachment , if more tha.n necessary, they m.ight be sent 
aboard the Philadelphia , This information he has not yet 
given raCo * * * I ha.ve purcha.sed for my men summ.er dress. 
They a,ll consent to take," (First Lieutenant Ner-ton Zeene 

to Burro^^'S, 9 JulyJ.801, Idarine Corps \rchives__) , 

(Lt ri^neTras "v~elTrTas~^apt7~Sajauel. Barron ofY 

Au gust 5_, 1801" Tshlis'ted Men): "To cnaBle them to' ma'^e 
that appearance iii Port to impress the British (vhose Troops 
are organized and make a better figure than over) T^lth a 
fa.vorable idea as possible of the Jferines of the U.S., I 
have ventured to take up from Lt, Kecne some coats. I am 
also desirous to obtain a Summer Suit for them, but for -^-ant 
of funds I have in this instance been disappointed. I shall 
endeavor, -p'ith Lt, Keene, to procure the money and I fl^.tter 
myself you ^'all not be disappointed vi th the arrangement -^^e 
sha.ll make for the confort and credit of ourselves and men." 
(Second Lieutena.nt John R. Fenwick on U.S. Frigate United 
Stat OS at sea off Malaga, Spain, to Burror^s, 5 August 1801, 
Marine Corps -irchives) 

June 18 , 1803 (Enlisted Men): "You ^'dll be pleased to 
provide such cloa, thing and military stores as ma.y be neces- 
sary for the gua.rds at the different n^vy yards and on board 
ships in ordernary. You i"ill m^ke your requisitions upon 
this Dep-^rtment for the sum.s nr-cessary to enable you to 
effect these objects." (Srcrotarv of the Navy Robert Sm.ith 
to Burro^^fS, 18 June, 1803, I.!Iarino Corps \rchives) 

March 7, 1803 (Enlisted Men): "You ^ill immediatelv 
take order for providing cloathing for the Marine Corps 
agreeably to the a.ppropria.tions for the present year." 



-23- 



Uniforms -24- Araerican Llarinrs 



(Secrr^tf^ry of the N^vy Robert Smith to Burrows, 7 March 
1803, Qcnerpl Letter Book, Wo. 6, Na^y ,\rchives) 

July 9, 1303 (Enlisted Men): "I h^vo applied to 
Ca.pt ain ^ATiarton for a Barrel of Flour for the use of the 
Deta.chraentc Ho ^'Ishes your order before he can furnish rae 
v'ith it, I ''^Tould purchase the article myself if in ray poFer 
but the ^'ra,nt of c^sh ^all prevent me." (First Lieutenant 
i?illiajn S, Osborne, on U.3.S. Philadelphia , at Philadelphia 
to Eurro""^s, 9 July 1803, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 33, 1803 (Officers): '^Ordered that officers in 
future x'Tca.r their blue uniform coats, •'-liite under clothes. 
Cocked Hats & S-^.shes, ^n6 it is expected no one ^^all under- 
take to alter any part of his uniform without direct orders." 
(Order of Burrows, Marine Corps Orders, 32 October 1803, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

October 33. 1803 (Enlisted I/Jen): "Ordered that on 
Sa.turciay the 39 Insto the Marines appear in their '"/inter 
Uniform & wear Queues which the Ox„ Master will provide 
giving to each Man onf and charging him with the sarae." 
(Order of Burrows, Ma.rine Corps Orders, 33 October 1803, 
Marine Corps \rchives) 

IT ov ember 8, 1803 (Officers): "Order 'd that no Of^ic^r 
in future ^^-ear his Sash, but on Duty." (Order of Burrows, 
Marine Corps Orders, 8 November 1803, I/iarine Corps Archives) 

De cemb er 7, 1803 (Enlisted Lfrn): "I no^^' enclose you 
Cloathing Return for the month of IJovem.ber v-ith the signa- 
ture of each man as also leneral Return of Cloathing issued 
since my arrival in the Mediterranean in which you will see 
m.y want of Cloa.thin?'. There are none tha.t I can hear of 
either at Cibralta.r or Malta." (Ca.,p'*^a,in John Hall a.t 
Syracuse. Italy to Burrows, 7 December 1803, 'Marine Corps 
xlr chives) 

D ecember 7. 1803 (Enlisted Men)j ""he Adjutant shall 
every day after the hour of Pa.rade attend to the drilling 
of ever:/ ma.n not actually on dutv and superintend generally 
their arms a,nd appearance. * * * -^tie Quarter Master win 
every Monday inspect the Troops beginning -""ith those a.t 
Barra.cks first, and he win notice to the men in time to 
prepare themselves, so that they may plea.d no excuse." 
(Order of Burrows, Marine Corps Orders, 7 December 1803, 
Marine Corps Archives) 



-24- 



Uniforms -25- American Ha.rir es 



"^Jliarton succeeds BurroFs as Co'-arn^ndant 

March 1_, 1304 : Franklin Wharton succeeds Willi?ij.i "pxd 
Burrows as Lieutenant-Colonel Coramandant of the Corps. 

March 30, 1804 (Enlisted MiCn): "Lest the coats should 
be ma.de by one person, to secure uniformity, vou ^-111 make 
no farther contract for that article^" (Wharton to Second 
Lieutenant Edi-ard Hall, 20 Ma.rch 1804, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

" Ghancce of Uniform has ta.ken lolace " 

March 24, 1804 (Enlisted Men); "There appears an un- 



accountable delay in the f or-'-^ardino; the coat vou speak of. 
It i"'a,s received at Baltimore and must be still there. You 
i"ill, hovrever, receive one early in the i^feok. In issuing 
the new you "'■'^ill '^ive no vest. It is made to button so as 
to make the latter unnecessary. In mv last I ^i^dshcd to have 
fori'varded some Clothing. This attend to and as the Change 
of Uniform, has taken place I vrish an immediate return of 
all the articles (accoutrements excepted) no^' at Barracks 
and in the Navy Store." (Wha.rton to First Lieutenant 
Anthony aal c , at Philadelphia, 24 March 1804, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

First Forma.l Uniform Order 
(March 25, 1804)"" 

Ordered tha.t the follc-ang Dross be the Uniform of 
the Maj:ine Corps: 

Officer s ; 

Navy blue Coat, buttoned a.cross the breast with two 
ro^'^s of buttons, halving eight on each side, the button holes 
laced, bro't to a point in the centre thus q^ p 



three buttons on the sleeves, laced in the sane manner ;- 
the pockets i^dth three buttons, placed, and ^1 th lace, 
Bim.ila.r to the sleeve.- The collar of scarlet, hooked before, 
■t^'ith two buttons on each side, la.ced;- Cuffs scarlet, the 
skirts turn'd up i-l th scarlet, ?r. two foul Anchors v'ork'd 
with gold thread on each skirt, the skirts lined with scarlet 
(5c thrcf^ Button holes laced (on the la.ppells of the Coa.t) on 
Scarlet, this however not to be seen ^"hen on duty, in Winter, 

Vest p.nd pantaloons white, with small navy buttons. 

Hatt , cock'd in Winter, round in Summer, r;-ith a, ^Told 
Band & Tassel, the ^and diagonally fixed; the Tassr^l over 

-25- 



Uniforms -26- American Ilarines 



the rig:ht Eve, Plurae, scarlet. The Koir to be queued. 

The Officers, ^■'hen in full uniform are to '-^oar a, scar- 
let Ss.eh round the waist, outside the Coat, and black boots 
to the knee, sa.sh tyed on the left side falling over the 
left thigh. Black leather Stock vhen on duty. The Officers 
grades are to be designated, in the folloi^.'ing raa.nner ; a. 
Colonel, tv7o gold Epaulette, one on each shoulder; A 
Captain a gold Epaulet on the right shoulder, and a s-old 
strap on the left, a first Lieut, gold EiDaulet on the right 
shoulder; a second Lieut, golci E-oaulet on the left shoulder; 
the Staff to vrear a. gold EDaulet a,nd a, Counterstrap embroider- 
ed on blue Clotho 

Side Arm.s, Yellow? mounted Sabres & ^•'dth Oilt sca.bbard, 
Tjorn over the Sa.sh, Black belts, i;vith yellow mounting. 

Il'n liste d MerTj : 

'~ The uniform of Ma.rines to be a Coatee single 
breasted, 1 row of buttons, yellow worsted binding on en.ch 
side, the extreme ends of which represent a ^ diamond thus 




white cloth Pantaloons, bla.ck cloth Gaiters, to come ur> 
to the Calf of the Leg, and linen Overalls in Summer, high 
crown' d hats, ?rithout a. brim, and a, r)lume of red -olush on 
the front of the hat with a Brass Eagle & Plate, & Hat B^nd 
of blue yelloTJ, & red Cord with a. Tassel of the s^rae Colors. 

R^obert] Smith 
Socre'tary of the Navy 

(Order of Secr-eta.ry of the Na.vy Robert Smith, Marine Corps 
Orders, 25 Iferch 1804, Ma.rine Corps Archives; See Marine 
Corps Orders, 2 September 1805 and 14 October 1805, Marine 
Corps Archives for da.te "March 25. 1804''; see also ^.IcClcllpn, 
Histc U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. XVI, pp. 63-64T 



March 26, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "As we have not hats 
to issue and a. fei^' immedia,tely ^''anted I ■'■"ish you to inouire 
at the Stage Office and see if it is not practicable to 
send to the Quarter Master about 20 or 30 vrith as many 
Cocka4es. Should you be able to for^-^ard the pa.ckage have 
it done ^^^Ith all despatch. Subjoined you i-lll find a 
Pattern of a. CaiD intended for the New Uniform, the Crown 
to be of two sizes, six and seven inches high, * * * ^o 
Drevent the falling in of the crown they must be very stiff. 



-26- 



ii--<>:- 



Uniforms -2 7- American .Marines 



The brim over the eyes in the center, to Droject 2-5- inches. 
You rill observe an Ea^le is substituted for a Cockade." 
O^Tharton to 7irst Lieutenant Anthony Oale at Philadelphia, 
25, 26, or 27 March 1804, Marine Gorios Archives) 

M§Z?.^ 2;Lj 1.804 (Enlisted L^en): " \s the Sea Service is 
yet in its iafanC3;-, Congress could not, ps ^-'ith the La.nd, 
be fully acquainted Tlth the dutv expected from the Marines, 
and consequently could not foresee the propriety of a 
Fatigue Suit. * * * in taking array from the annua.l allorance 
of Uniform: One Vest, nov^ unnecessary from the form of the 
Coatee; one stock, a,llo''-ing t^^^o for three years; three clasps, 
at all times, useless; two pair of socks; * * * the follovr- 
ing articles m.ay be given in lieu of them: one hat or cap, 
one Sailor's (common jackett) and one Dair of trousers^ 
These being ma.de in Barra.cks, under the immediate inspection 
of the Quarter Master, r^ill be issued to the Recruit, v-ho by 
a proper use of them, will early learn a due regard to his 
Parade Dresn« " ( ■IT'iarton to Secretary of the Na,vy Robert 
Smith, 27 liarch 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

March 27, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "As an im.provement in 
qualit:?-, a,s well a.s in form, may be expected bv an establish- 
ment in Parracks for the m.aking a.nd mending of Clothes 
allowed b^r Government to the Maxine Corps and as it ^^^11, 
instead of increasing the expense, m.ust reduce tha.t paTt 
of the appropriations, which is made under the Q,. Master's 
Department, permit m.e , Sir, to offer the following observa- 
tion: Hitherto the contracts for Clothing have been entered 
into a.t different Stations * * * 'T'hcv have been frequently 
made -"rith Ta.ylors una.cqualnted vrith the colors a,nd fixed 
quality of the Cloth or ^^'ho ha.d not a nice regard to the 
shape or pattern of the ClotheSo * * * i beg permission 
to enlist a, person qualified to take charge of a num.ber of 
Taylors who enlisted may make the folloi-'ing articles: 
Coats, vests, linen and woolen Pantaloons, ^'-ith socks, also 
the Fatigue Dress on ^-'hich I ha.ve ha,d the honor to address 
you." (Wharton to Secreta.rv of the Na/^v Robert Sn.ith, 27 
March 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 



March 29 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "I can give no order 
about altering the Uniform for the Recruits." (^^'harton to 
First Lieutenant miliara Araory, 29 March 1804, Marine Corps 
\r chives) 

March 29, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "The coats are of the 

former pattern. You ^nll issue them nith the vests," 

(Wharton to Second Lieutcn-^nt Ed^^-ard Hall, 29 March 1804, 
Marine Corps \rchivcs) 

-27- 



Uniforms -28- American Mprines 



April 6, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Pay very early atten- 
tion to the Caps mentioned by the Adjuta.nt; also the die 
which must be prepa.red, and sent to this as soon as porsible, 
to have the Eagles ready. * * * In the course of a short 
time I expect our clothins; will he made in Barra,cks. I 
therefore shall wa.nt a smart active man, * * * one i^'ho in 
giving rank to as a Sergeant * * * in adclition to the pay 
of a Sergea.nt he will receive ;!Jll„00 per month makinT 
:|20.00c"' (vmarton to First Lieutenant lale, 6 April 1804, 
Marine Corps Archives ) 



April 13, 1804 (Enlisted I/[en ) : "Ordered that each 
N. Go Officer charged with a Squad be held responsible for 
their Dress & good appea.rance 3: that the men ma:/ arn^ear on 
the pa,rade clean properly dressed & in uniform, a Non Com.^ 
Officer is appointed to each Room who half an hour before 
the Parade is to turn the men out of their rooms, their 
Hair dresc'ed & powdered their Clothing & accoutrements 
clean, thc:'-.r arms in good order, the Sergea.nt M^, j or is then 
to inspect them, he is not to suffer a man to go on the 
Parade who is not fit for the inspection of the Adjutant 
& it is expected he will report those TT. C= Officers "^^ho are 
negligent in this duty, or he will be held responsible by 
the Adjutant who is himself a.nswerablc to the Corimanriant 
for the order & good appeara.ncc of the Parade, on which 
no Ma.n is to be raa.rched without a Queue, & the most minute 
part of his uniform is agreeable to the General Order," 
(Order of iVha.rton, Marine Corps Orders, 12 \pril 1804, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Ap ril 14, 1804 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "I wish 
you to order 350 more | capsj made * * * to render them, per- 
fectly stiff in the go'urd or brim; require a pirce of bl^'Ck 
leather, the sarae as is now put in th(: rear of all ha,ts to 
avoid the powder. This have sewn brdow the gourd. I i-dll 
allow five cents per hat extra, for this, * * * these Ca-os 
are to bp of different sizes in the Crown. * * * Sergeant's 
linen overalls,* * * The Die I find win be cut« Tnen 
finished for tryal have some impressions made * * * p,nd 
fori^rnrd them, with it. * * * The vosts will be issued ^^ s 
formerly. The white coats for Officers, as well a,s m ~n , 
are done away with." (^Vharton to First Li^^ut ena.nt \nthony 
Calc at Philadelphia, 14 April 1804, Marine Corms A.rc hives) 

April 17 , 1804 (Enlistecl Men) : "^e pleased ,to order 
purchaBcd * * *: 200 Privates' Vests." (^'^a.rton to Srcretary 
of the N-^vy Robert Smith, 17 Aoril 1804, !/[a.rine Coros 
Archives) 

-28- 



Uniforms -29- A.noxican M^.rincs 



April 19, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "I li^d the honour to 
receive yours of the 14 Inst, The Cpps qre ordered pnd 
probably may be here by the time pllowed, but this I cannot 
be certain of untill Mr. Willis received a letter fron 
Lutr- when I will be able to give you a positive answer, thev 
have been ordered to be made of two sizes as you originally 
directed. The black leather will likewise be added. The 
vests are on board the same vessel in ^^^hich I shiped the 
first clothing and are addressed to you, all the other 
a.rticles will be put on boa.rd a, schooner that sails tomorrow, 
exceDt your last order for stocks, clasps, kna.psa.cks & Sergt. 
linen overalls, the two la.st articles I have ord.ered made, 
and no doubt -"''ill be ?rith you by the 10th May, * * * i have 
this da,y searched all the principal stores in this City for 
sca.rlet plush and the onlv thins: like it tha.t I could find 
is in Market Street, a sample of which I inclose, if this 
will a.nswer , I proba^bly ca.n get it dyed deeper, as it pppea.rs 
to me too light for the purpose. I believe there is not a 
piece of worsted plush in this City, they ha,ve become very 
much out of use. I likewise inclose a, Pattern of a button, 
if it suits, I can obtain any quantity, as they are struck 
off here. The die will be finished tomorrow, I will have 
some impressions made if possible." (First Licuten.ant 
Anthony Gale to Wharton, 19 April 1804, Marine Corps Archives 



April 81 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Eagles and plumes 
will also be sent." (Wha.rton to First Lieutenant Henry 
Caldwell, 21 April 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

April 85, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "In the purchase of 
the Plush, to buy enough, as 3 to 400 Plumes or Feathers 
will be wanted. " (Wharton to First Lieutenant Anthony 
Oale at Philadelphia, 83 April 1804, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

H" t ";' nc^ ^ for Officers 

April 25 , 1804 (Officers): "I wish you to make a con- 
tract for nine of the hat bands, now to be worn bv the 
Officers, Instead of two colours let them be made of three 
to correspond v/ith our Uniform, Blue & Scarlet silk, ^^^ith 
the Grold or lace. Let them be about tV'.'o inches longei , 
with the tassel. Capt. G-ale's is not included in the pbove 
number. '^ (Wharton to First Lieutenant John R. Fenwick at 
Philadelphia, 25 \pril 1804, !!arine Corps Archives) 

May 3, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Ordered th^t the Sum.mer 
Uniform be worn a,fter the 15th, It is therefore exDCcted 



-2Q- 



UniforraG -30- Anoxic ^n I/lp.ri-ics 



* » 



tlia.t every Soldier on tliat d^y s.-pT^ ar in "Tiite p-^ntaloone. " 
(Order of ' ''.^Jliarton, Marino CorpB Orders, 3 !/[ay 1804, J^iarine 
Oorpe Arcliives) 

May 5, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Privates' Linnen Over- 
alls." (Wharton to Secretary of the Navj^ Robert Smith, 5 
May 1804, Marine CorDS Archives) 

Mav 8_, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Vests * * * Caps, Eagles, 
and Plumes, * * * Epaulets * * * Woolen overalls (Private)." 
(Wharton to Captain Anthony Gale, 8 May 1804, Marine Corns 
iirchives) 

May 39, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "I have this day received 
the "box conta.ining 200 Ea.gles, 66 Pands, and 150 Plumes * 
Should the Goats of the Old Uniform be damaged, you will 
issue to your men the New." ("iiJha.rton to Second Lieutenpnt 
Edi-^ard Hall, 29 May 1804, Marine Corix Archives) 

June 1 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "You will be informed 
of the change in our Uniform and I hope will ha.ve sufficient 
influence x^lth your men to induce a, nurchase of the coats." 
(■"''Qiarton to Captain John Hall, 1 June 1804, Marine Corps 
Archives ) 

June 6_, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Requesting a survev upon 
certain cloa.thing provided for the I'larines," (Secretary of 
the Navy Robert Smith to Miarton, 6 June 1804, General Letter 
Book, Navy Archives) 

June 87 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "I am in Fant of all 
kind of Clothing excepting Goats 3: Ha.ts, I have received 
one hundred of the former from Mr, Harrison but had pre- 
viously provided myself vlth the Nerr Cap ( Substituting: the 
Bucks Tail & Cockade in front in lieu of the Brass-plate 
& red feather). Should there be any plates made, I request 
I may have some sent rae. " (Captain Daniel Oarmick to I'^Jliarton, 
2? June 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

Mourning Crape ordered 

July 23, 1804 (Officers): "Ordered that - Crape be 
worn on the left a,rm, & Sword, during thirty days, as a 
raa.rk o_f Respoc_t to the Memory of the late Lieut. 2nd Lieut. 
E[noch] S. fc] Lane," (order ot Wharton, Marine Corps 
Orders, 23 Vuly 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

-30- 



Uniforms -31- American Marines 



August 10, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Bv first opportun- 
ity ship to this place all the coats of the Old Uniform, 
Sergepn'ts end. well as Privg.tee * * * forward six Sergeants' 
Plumes." (Wharton to Second Lieutenant Ed^-ard Hall, a.t 
Philadelphia, 10 August 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

August SO , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Your ideas on the 
subject of a Fatigue Dress for the Driv=»te Marines also 
on the subject of ' an establishment in Barracks for the 
making' and mending of the Mari le Gloathing are approved. 
You will take the requisite orders for carrying them into 
effect." (Secretary of the Na^/y Robert Smith to Wharton, 
18 \ugust 1804, '::eneral Letter Book and in Marine Officers 
Letter Book, No. 1, p. 6, ITavy Archives) 

Augus t 21, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "29 Music Coats, 
41 Sergeant's Coats, six Private's Coats, 30 Epaulets, 
35 Ha,ts, 60 pairs Sergeant's v^oolen ovcialls, one pa„ir 
Sergeant's linen overalls, 155 pairs Private's linen over- 
alls, 71 pairs shoes, 157 ir'atch coats, 50 Sergeant's shirts, 
six Private's .^hirts, 309 Stocks, 34 Music's vests, one 
Sergeant's vest, one Private's vest." (Second Lieutenant 
Edward Hall at Philadelphia to IVha.rton, 21 August 1804, 
Mar ine CorpeArchives ) 

August 24 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Articles * * * sent 
to Head Quarters: 20 Music Coats, a.ll the Sergeants and 
Privates coats of the Old Uniform, 20 Epaulets, all the h^ts 
and cockades * * * lOO Watch Coats, 30 Sergeants shirts, 250 
stocks, 25 Music vests ?.'ith all the Sergeants and Privates 
vests * * * Mr, Armitage is to receive 25. cents for the 
larger Plate and six for the small. Did you acouaint 
Lieut ena.nt Keene with the method of fixing the Plate, B^nd, 
Plume, etc„ r-i-.en a/ou sent to him those things? If you have 
not I 1^'ish you ^^^ould do it." (WhaTton to Second Lieutenant 
Edward Hall, at Philadelphia, 24- Auzust 1804, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

August 28 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "420 yards of coarse 
bro?7n Holland * * * 30 gross coat button moulds * * * 250 
yaxds of i^'hite fla.nnel to line the uniform coats * * * blue 
and red cloth," (Wharton to Oeorge Harrison, Ifevy Agent at 
Philadeliohia, 28 August 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 9, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Price of r^hite kersey 
* * * the same as used for overalls by our Artillery, ilso 
that of white cloth * * * so that the cost of either, or 
both, may not exceed that hitherto, or no^' paid, for the 

^31- 



Uniforms -32- American Marines 



Blue i/^oolen overalls r^.s I intend to substitute the onr for 
the oth(;r. " ('^harton to ^jeorge Harrison at Phil^^.delohip , 
9 October 1804, Kgrino Corps \rchives) 

October 9, 1804 (Enlisted I!en): "I have n^ritten to !.!r. 
Harrison about the purchase of ^^^hite cloth to be used for 
the Winter Overalls of our m.en." (iiTha.rton to Second Liru- 
tenant Edvard Hall, 9 October 1804, Mn.rine Corps x\rchives) 

October 13, 1804 (Enlisted Men): " \s Arraitages Die 
is worn out & he is about to have another executed., he 
rishes your order as to the Button you vdll prefer, I 
enclose his patterns for your selection, i-hich return 
( thro same medium ) p-^return of mail. He is of opinion tha.t 
you had better do away the Sta.rs a,nd have an Anchor on the 
Button," (George Harrison to Wha.rton, 12 October 1804, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

October 16 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Should you have it 
in your power to enlist for me seven or eight Taylors, to 
be employed at this pla.ce, * * * engage them." (^Yharton 
to Second Lieutenant Edward Hall, 16 October 1804, Ma.rine 
Corps Archives) 

October 18 , 1804 (Enlisted Men): "I wish you to 
inquire for Pipe Clay or 'Siting in your city * * * to 
clean the white overalls of the men. About one ba.rrel or 
two we can first try; perhaps, the Artillery, as white 
is used, may be able to recoram.end the most suita.ble." 
MilHiarton to Second Lieutenant Edwa.rd Hall, at Philadelphia, 
18 October 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 



October 19, 1304 (Enlisted Men): "It will be out ray 
department to make an altera.tion in the buttonss I there- 
fore return to Mr. Armitage the card. * * * Please order 
them to be of the former pattern * * * black cloth for 
gaiters * * * brown linen * * * white common buttons * * * 
la.rge common buttons." (Wharton to Harrison, 19 October 
1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 24, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Patterns of black 
cloth * * * not a piece of white serge for sale * * * lOO 
yards brown linen * * * sma,ll white common buttons * * * 
large white common buttons * * * white thread," (George 
Harrison a,t Philadelphia to Wharton, 24 October 1804, 
Mar in e Corps Ar ch i ve s ) 



-32- 



Uniforms -33- Amri ics.n Marines 



October 27, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "The Pipe Clay, I 
shall look for with s^rea.t anxiety. " (VPne^xton to Second 
Lieutenant T^dward Hall, 27 October 1804, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

Officers on Court- Martial Duty 

November 3, 1804 (Officers): "Ordered that in future 
Officers do not apoea^r on the Parade, unless in the Full 
Uniform, lately adopted o It will be expected equally, tha.t 
Officers when serving; on Courts Martial, apprar in the same." 
(Order of Wharton, Marine Corps Orders, 3 Ilovember 1304, 
Mar in c Corps Xt c h i ve b ) 

November 3, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "The Pipe Clay 
send by the first opportunity," (Wharton to Second Lieuten- 
ant Edward Kail, 3 November 1804, Mari'ie Corps Archives) 

Novembe r 6, 1 804 (Enlisted Men): "The price of Pipe 
Clay in Philadelphia, will prevent the use of it herec I 
shall, in lieu of it, purchase Spanish Whiting a.t this 
place; should you, however, at any time meet with a quantity 
at a reduced price; I wish you to engage it for the Corps." 
(Wharton to Second Lieutenant Edward Hall, 6 November 1804, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

November 9 . 1804 (Enlisted Men): "Ordered that in 
future the troops appear in their ''"inter Dress, by wearing 
woolen overalls, or fa.tigue suit being novr issued to each 
Soldier the Full Uniform vrili be worn on Parade only. 
Whiteing will be issued for the clea.ning of oveialls instead 
of washing, which will be furnished by the Quarter Master 
Sergeant." (Order of Whaxton, Uexine Corps Orders, 9 
November 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

November 9, 1 304 (Officers): "Ordered that Officers 
in future appea.r on the Parade with Cocked Ha,ts & the 
coat button'd apcixding to the Winter Establishm.ent . " (Order 
of 'barton, Marine Corps Orders, 9 November 1804, 'Marine 
Corps Archives) 

November 26_, 1804 (Enlisted Men) : "I have ordered a 
trial made of the Belt with the use of ''iliiting. There is 
too much Oil or Grease left in the Leather. It appears 
through itc I wish you to ask Messrs. J. & K. how this is, 
& whether it cannot be remedied. If so, I shall then give 
orders, under the a.ppropriation for the num.ber; but as it 
now a,ppears in the dressing of the Leather it can never 

-33- 



Uniforme -34- American liarincs 



be kept as it ou'^ht. Tventy Layers of the "Tiiting has 
been put on, and yet this Oil is not hidden. Ascertain 
from the Ircntleraen the reason. You vill in future issue to 
your men t-'?fo prs of Socks only pr year instead of four. " 
(Wharton to occond Lir-utenant Ed^mrd Hall, 36 November 1804, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Dec ember 8, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "The reason assigned 
by the '1-erman ^^rho dressed the leather may be a sufficient 
Cause for the only improvement of the Belt, Ke observes 
it can be remedied by time qnd expense, "^he former I am 
willing to afford, the latter I cannot undertake to allov, " 
(■^^harton to Second Lieutenant Edrrard Hall, 8 December 1804, 
Marine Oorps Archives) 

Dece mber ?7, 1804 (Enlisted Hen): " Order 'd ttet in 
future SO lb Flour, be issued by the Quarter Master monthly, 
to each room containing SO men, delivering it to the Ser- 
geant or Gorpora.l having chn.rge of the Room, and taking his 
receipt for the same, A Barber in future x^lll not be 
exempted from Duty to dress or sha.ve the men. It is ex- 
pected & fully required that they dress each other," (Order 
of Wha.rton, Ma.rine Corps Orders, 27 December 1804, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

December 39, 1804 (Enlisted Men): "White Belts, 
shoulder knots as rorn by our Ijon-Commissioned Officers 
* * * 500 plumes and bands will be reauired for 1805, * '^ * 
I wish you to in-^^uire of Lir, Sexton the price he pays to 
Tl/Oraen for making our socks, and hoi~ much coating each pair 
ought to contain." (Tharton to Second Lieutenant Edwa^rd 
Hail, 39 December 1804, jMarine Corps Archives) 

December 31 , 1804 (Enlisted i'-Ien) : "I have received 
a sa.raple of lea.ther * * * it appears will dress * * * j 
shall merely observe, that the probability is the saine num- 
ber (300) will be required for 1806, I mean to change the 
Bla.ck totallyc" ('lliarton to Second Lieutenant Edward Hall, 
31 Decem.ber 1804, Marine Corps Archives) 

February 5 , 1805 (Enlisted Men): "There must be some 
mistake in the quality of the Shoulder Knots fron the price 
asked by Mr, Deon^ I do not want the gold thread. They 
are to be miade of silk, the sa.me a.s those formerly furnished 
by Mr, Sal lade." O'^l^arton to Second Li '^u tenant Edward Hall, 
5 February 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 



-34- 



Uniforms -35- AraGriGa,n Marines 



February 8, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "500 Stocks ^vithout 
Clasps * * * The leather to be used for the Belts * * * 
ha.ving it free from oil, which can only allow it to tnke the 
Whiting," (^.^larton to Second Lieutenant Edn^ard Hall, 8 
February 1805, Marine Corps A.rchives) 

Februar y 19, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "I shall be shortly 
in want of Russia Sheeting for Linnen Ovor^lls * * * 46 
pounds of fliite or brown thread and 34 gross of large and 
67 gross of small yellow buttons * * * the fatigue ha.ts 
of common wool will be required for my men * * * order 200 
of the caps, plumes a,nd bands, and Eagles. I mean the 
squa.rc pla.te for them, " (''liar ton to George Harrison, at 
Philadelphia, 19 February 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

March 6, 1805_ (Enlisted Men): "I am sorry that the 
ha.ts could not be pui' chased at 50 cents, as it ^ras the 
extent of my estimate, Oa.nnot the imported wool ha..t be 
procured a,t that price, if you. ha.ve not given the order to 
Mr» Lutz? It mil make no material difference as to the 
color of the large buttons, the small m:ast be yellowc You 
can therefore purcha.se the white,." (I'Tiazton to George 
Harrison, 6 Ma.rch 1805, Ma.rine Oorias Archives) 



March 21 , 1805 (Enlisted Men): "102 fa.tigue hats from 
Lots have ship'd by the schooner Wi tney , Captain Hand^ * * * 
the buttons are shippcdo * * * Unless English ha„ts are to 
be had Country cannot be had under 8t- to 9^ -oer dozen," 
(George H. Harrison at Philadelphia to ' harton, 21 Jiarch 
1805, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

Ma rch 28 , 1805 (Enlisted Men): "CoatǤee^nd Linnen 
Overalls * * * P'atigue ^uits to be issued as public cloth- 
ing and e(i,ually accounted for * * * jf you have a d»y of 
Inspection to iDrcvent an improper use of the Clothing 
(which you certainly ought to have)," (l^iarton to Second 
Lieutenant Edj,7^,rd Hall, 26 M?^,rch 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

Ma.rch 26, 1805 (Enlisted Men): ""he yellow I must h^ve, 
if any threa.d of tha.t color is on the Continent. Without 
it, the Coatees a.re suspendedo * * * The extra blue thread." 
(ifliarton to George Harrison, 26 March 1805, Ma.rine Corps 
Archives) 

March 29, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "The affrny with 
Tripoli will doubtless bo brought to a close during this 
summer a.nd knowing you ought to have by the last shipmient 

-35- 



Uniforms -36- Araericpn !([arincR 



a sufficient number of ccpts for thpt time I Ghall order 
none from, this Country; but should it happen that the 
War is continued for another Season, you r.ust m.q.ke the 
necessary re-iuisition on the Qr. Master for then." 
(Wharton to Captain John Hall, in the Mediterranean, 29 
March 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

Mar ch 39 , 1805_ (Enlisted Men): "As soon as the 
En/^lish hats expected arrive, I shall a.greeably to your 
order, Ijjy 200c The quality of the country hate is far 
better than those imported. * * * Your yello^^ thread h-^s 
been found and shipped by Ceiotain Hand." (C^eorge H. 
Harrison a,t Philp.delphia to Wharton, 29 March 1805, Marine 
Corps Archives ) 

A pril 7, 1.^05, (Enlisted Men): "You mention a 
desire for the Ne.? Uniform.s. I should be very happy, 
was it in general use; but as long as -^xij of the Old 
is on hqnd, it must be used, for were the coats to be 
sent, your m.3n could not appear in them., unless due, with- 
out purchasing them, as has been the custom here, I there- 
fore think you ha,d better, if your men possess that spirit, 
which is essential for a Soldier, and i-^-hich ha,s manifested 
itself here, induce them to buy," (Wharton to First 
Lieutenant Newton Keene at Boston, 7 April 1805, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

April 11 , 1805_ (Enlisted Men); "Navy buttons, with 
the Eagle, from~Mro ^Lrmitage, * * * Coat Button Mioulds. 
?he difficulty of finding yellow threa.d * * * it is im- 
ported assorted, in colors, ind.uces m.e to ask, if it will 
not be practicable with you, to have the Brown or white 
dyed, so as to answer the dema.nd„ " (Whaxton to G^eorge 
Harrison, 11 April 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

April 19, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "'^.^lite, coarse flan- 
nel * * * for the lining of Coatees." (Wharton to George 
Harrison, 19 April 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

April , 1805 (Officers): Hamet Caramelli, former 
Bashaw of Tripoli, accompanied Navy Agent William Eaton and 
First Lieut ena.nt Presley Neville O^Ba.nnon in the operations 
against Demo, Tripoli in April, 1805. Before parting 
with O'Bannon Kamet presented, his "brave American" friend 
with a jewelled sword with a Mameluke hilt, which he 
himeolf had carried while with the Mamelukes in Egypt, 
(McClella,n, Hist. U.S.M.C, 1st ed. , I, Ch. XV, pp. 54-o5) 



Uniforrce -37- American MarineB 



M§'Z: ^j 1805 (Enlisted Men): "No Marine in this 
uuard will co Buffered to pppoar in the Old Uniform ^'hen 
on dv.ty. * * * Each rn^n enlisted by me, in future, vrili 
be lurnisheci Fith the Nevr Uniform & the neceesary stopoage 
rai.de out of his p^^.y. " (First Lieutenant Fcwton Keene nt 
Charlcstown, Masp/to Th«rton, 26 May 1805, Marine Caps 
Archives ) 

Juno__ 9, 1 805 (Enlisted Men); "Gontrnct with Messrs 
Inncs and IClnsoy, for twenty-five Sword Belts, of the same 
Leather, width, etc, as those they rare to furnish for the 
Cartouch Boxes." (i^Tnarton to Second Lieutenant Edward 
Kail, 9 June 1B05, j.lp.rine Corps Archives) 

July 8 , 1805 (Enlisted Men): "The bearer will deliver 

a.t the Barracks one Barrel of Pour flour for powdering." 

(Lewie De'olcis at Alexandri^i,, Va. , to Wharton, 8 July 1805, 
Mn.ri n e Cor p s Archive s ) 

AkX-ltlt 12,, 1805 (Enlisted Men); "A delay in the 
execution of your Order to the Agents who were to ma.ke 
a shipment of the Woolens for this Corps, hns induced me 
to n.ddrens ^/'ou, on the necessity of preparing by some other 
means for the appro?^eh of Winter. * * * ^he Cop tees I 
expect will not be so much wanted." ('Vha.rton to Secretary 
of the Navy Robert Sm.ith , 12 \ugust 1805, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

Augus t 13, 1805_ (Enlisted Men): "If you should not 
receive the Clothes etc. ordered from London for the 
Ma.rine Corps, you will be plea.sed to repor' t to me on the 
subject and I will, agreeably to vour suggestion, order 
the necessary/ purchase to be made in this Country. " (Sec- 
retary of the Na„v7/ Robert Smith to ^''^larton, 16 \ugust 1305, 
Marine Corps Archives; ^ilarine Officers Letter Book, No. 1, 
p, 14, Na.vy Archives) 

September 2, 1805 (Officers and Enlisted Men): An 
Order of Wharton dated October 25, 1805 cancels one of 
September 2 which is not in Order Book. (Order of uTiarton, 
Marine Corps Orders, 26 October 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

September 2, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "The following 
Orders are issued for the future 'Government of Officers 
stationed at Kea.d Quarters and are to be received in lieu 
of those given under the 7th of December 1803. Ordered 



that the Captain, or Officer Commanding by seniority ♦ * 

-37- 



♦ 



Uniforms -<o8- American Llarinee 



On each Sunday he "'ill ta,ke the Mornin?? pR,r,9de ^^-hich r-iil 
"be vieT-red. a general one, as every Soldier exempted during 
the Feek, by dally duty, will at that tine appear under 
arras. He vdll at that Parade order such officers of the 
Line to a,ttend hirn on duty as he may judge proper. The 
inaiters of those Officers will at the sane tine be re- 
quired , He will not permit Officers at any time to serve 
as such unless in Pull Uniform and a.ccoutred as required 
in General Order given by the Secrota.rv of the Navy under 
the 25th of !ferch' 1804. * * * The Adjutant * * * vrni 
inspect the arras and accoutrements of all Cxua.rds as well 
a.s Detachments, pa.raded for service in the Oarrison under 
marching ordcrso * * * He "'-ill, on each I-!onday morning, 
i"hen the Inspection of Clothing is made bv the Quarter LI^i^s- 
ter, * * * The Quarter Master * * * will attend on ovrry 
Monda.y morning to the Inspection of the Public Clothing 
issued to each Soldier, as^c^rtaining the cause of loss, 
or increa.se (if any) in the article, or articles, of such 
Clothing belonging to the Person, on whom the same ma]/" be 
found, reporting any alteration he may discover to the 
Commandant e '• (Order of I'lharton, Iferine Corps Orders, 2 
September 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

September oO , 1805 (Enlisted Men): "According to a 
valuation of the Clothing due the Dctq.chmont of the late 
Friga.te Phila.delphia , allowing prime cost for each article, 
you will make a reouisition for a sufficient sum., to enable 
you to make purchase of the whole amount , as may a.ppGa.r due 
from your Books, on account of the Marine Corps," (V/harton 
to "The Quarter-Master", 30 September 1805, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

Oc tober 8, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "The Pipe Cla.y will 
I expect be received in due time* Whenever it arrives it 
will be acceptable a,s we ca.n only procure the whiting as a 
Substitute," ("Tha.rton to First Lieutenant John R. Fenwick, 
8 October 1805, l,/[arine Corps Archives) 

First Printed U niform Order 
(October 14, 1805"] 



"By Command of the Secretary of the Na.vy the follo^^lng 
Orders are to be received in lieu of those by him issued 
under the 25th of M:u-ch 1804," (llarino Corps Orders, 14 
October 1805, Marine Corps Orders) 



•38-^ 



Uniforms -39- AiT'erican Ma r i no e 



Ordered 

That the 
Follo'^^ang: DresG 
3c The 
Uniform of the Marine Gor-oe 



O fficers ; 

II?.vy blue co^t, buttoned across the brca.Gt, vith 
fnro rows of HPvy buttons, ei.^ht on c^.ch side, the button- 
holes l^iced, brouf^ht to p, point in the center, thus 



V/ 



three buttons on the sleeves, Inced in the s;\me manner; 
the pockets v^ith three buttons, placed, and with lace, 
similar to the sleeve; the collar of scarlet, hooked before 
■with two buttons on e^ch side; laced cuffs sc.qrlet; the 
skirts turned up with scarlet, nnd two foul anchors ^-orked 
T^ath ^old thread on each skirt; the skirts lined with scar- 
let, and three button-holes la.ced (on the lappels of the 
coat) on GC'^rlet: this, however, not to be seen when on 
dutj^, in vrintero "'''est and panta^loon, -^^^hite; hat cocked in 
I'^inter, with a gold laced loop, a,nd np^Mv button under the 
cockade. The cockade of lea.ther, thus described #fe 

The hat to be worn over the right eye, the ra,nge of the cock 
of the ha.t of course over the left eye, with ta.ssels from 
the sides of the hat. Round hat in summer, ^-'ith ^ gold 
band and tassel, the ba.nd dif^.:;^;onally fixed, the tassel o'^'-er 
the right eye. Hate with scarlet plume. The h^ir to be 
queued. 

The officers ^-'hen in full uniform, are to vrear a scar- 
let sa.Gh round the wpist, out side the coat, and black boots, 
to the knee, ^ith black silk tassels. Sash tied on the left 
side, falling over the left thigh. Pla.ck leather stock, 
when on duty. 

The officer s' grades 

qre to be designated in the f ollov^ing m.anner , viz . 

A Colonel - Two gold epaulets, one on each shoulder, 
A Captaan - A gold epaulet on the right shoulder -■■'jid a 

gold strap on the left, 
A First Lieutenant - Gold cpnulet on the right shoulder. 
A Second Lieutenant - Gold eppulet on the left shoulder. 
The Staff - To wear a gold epaulet nnd p counter strap 

embroidered on blue cloth. 
Side- Arras - Yello^i^ mounted sabres, and with gilt scabbards, 

worn over the sash; blp.ck belts, with yellow 

mountings. 

-39- 



Uniforms -40- Amoricqn Un.TinGB 



The Uniform of Mar in e 3 ; 

To be a coatoe, single brensted , one ro^^f of buttons, 
yellow worsted binding on en.ch side, the extreme ends of 
which represent a half diamond 

%/ 

white cloth pantaloons; block cloth or linen gaiters, to 
come up to the calf of the l6-g, pnd linen over-qlls in 
summer. High crowned hats, without p, brim, pnd r plume 
of red plush on the front of the hat, with a brass ragle 
qnd plnte, .-ind hat-band of blue, yellow mi.d red cord, ^-Ith 
a tassel of the sp.rae colour 3 

Serjeants - To T^ear leather cockp.dee on the left side 
of the hat, •'-dth their plumes. 

Rt. Smith 
Sccretrarjr of the ITpvy 

Washi ngton , October 14, 1805 (The d^^itr r'a,s ori2:in^lly 
print ea ?9 but crossed off in ink and 14 substituted), 

I certify;- thp^t the nbove is a, true copy of the original 
deposited in this OfficOo 

Washington, Marine Garrison Mich.-^el Reynolds, Ju^ 
2 November 1805 Lieut. &. \djutpnt 

(Secretq.ry of the I-Tavy Robert Smith to Miarton, 14 October 
1805, Marine Officer Letter Book, No. 1, Npvy Archives; 
Gonrral Letter Book, No. 6, Navy Archives; Photograph of 
Printed, Order in Marine Corps Archives; Order of Sccretpry 
of the Navy Robert Smith, Marine Corps Ord.ers, 14 October 
1805, p. 64, Marine Corps Archives* McClellan, Hist. U.S.M.C., 
1st od. , I, Ch. XVI, r>po 42, 65-66) 



October 26, 1805 (Officers and Enlisted Mxn) : "Ordered, 
for the r^overnment of Officers in this Corios, ^s mn^r respect 
the Uniform ?id-opted .-^nd arras to be x^-orn, thpt in future 
attention be ppid to the Order of the Secret a, ry of the N^vy 
under the 14th of this month, in lieu of that expressed by 
an Order regulating the s^me under the 2d of September; no?T 
cancelled p,s mentioned undo- the 14th inst. (Order of 
Wha.rton, Marine Corps Orders, 26 October 1805, Marine Gores 
Archives) 

November 5, 1805 (Enlisted JTen) : "The grcp.tcr part 
i"ere in want of Clothing of all description. I h^ve informa- 
tion from Cpptnin Chauncey that there is a box of Clothing 
on board but that there is no invoice what is contained in 

-40- 



Uniforms -41- Anericsn Marines 



it. I will examine it today and issue such pr j. conceive 
due to the men but as there is some that is in w«nt of 
clothing that is not due to them such as coats and caps 
and ca.nnot parade on that account I do not know hov to 
issue such clothing. I therefore would be gla.d to g^t that 
inf orma.tion, " (Second Lieutenn.nt Thomas Town f^o^nsj on 
U.S. Brig Horne t p,t New York, to '^Tharton , 6 November "l805, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

November 8, 1805 (Officers): "Ordered, That in future 
Officers a.pnea.r agreeably to the Winter Establishment ■^rith 
Oocked Hats, etc." (Order of Wharton, Marine Corps Orders, 
8 November 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

N ovember 8, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "Ordered, "hat in 
future the Troops aDioear in their Winter Dress, by wea.rjng 
White woolen Overalls & Bla,ck 'C-aiters, now issued. T'l'hiting 
will be issued for the former, ?rhich will be furnished by 
the Sergt, Major 5; Stoppage for payment of the same m.a.de." 
(Order of W:.iarton, Marine Corps Orders, 8 November 1805, 
Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

November 9 , 1805 (Enlisted Men): "Two Sergeants add 
to the number of the Non Commissioned Officers always em- 
ployed a,s the Principals of the Ar-mory a,nd Taylors' Room. 
* * * P.S, I have been able thus far to procure 12 Taylors 
only, mustered as Marines, when 8 more a.re added the re- 
quisite number to make up the whole quantity of clothing 
anua.lly, and they will, of course, be added to the return," 
(Wha.rton to Secretary of the Na.yv/- Robert Smith, 9 November 
1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

Nov ember 9_, 1805 (Enlisted Men) : "It is never cus- 
tomary to issue articles unless due, but in cases where 
the Service cannot suffer, as at Sea, or confined otherwise, 
you can, to make ^rour men appear as Soldiers, issue the 
few articles necessary for that purpose, * * * if nien 
receive considerable clothing- you must take them on a Pay 
Roll for the cost of the same, as so much money received a,s 
pay and on your Return to Head Quarters make a settlement 
with the Qua.rter Master by purchasing the same cjuantity of 
articles from the fund stopped, and repla.ce them in your 
Store." (Wharton to Second Lieutenant Thomas Town, 9 
November 1805, Marine Corps \rchives) 

December 5, 1805 (Enlisted Men): "The Shipment of 
Clothing by the Huntress , unfortunately lost by capture, 
ha,s so fa,r reduced the Quarter Master's Stores as to make 

-41- 



Uniforms -42- America.n Marines 



it neoesea.ry either by anticiDation of a, iDart of the Cloth- 
ing for the year 1806 or by some way to replace them for the 
immediate d em. and thereon by the Marines lately arrived at 
Head Quarters. " (Wharton to Secretary of the Navy Robert 
Smith, 5 December 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

'fhite Cross Belts for Officers 

December 16, 1805 (Officers): "The Officers of the 
Marine Corps will in future wea.r white cross belts with 
gilt plates instead of the black as expressed in the order 
of the 14th of October last." (Secretary of the Navy 
Robert Smith to ^iHiarton, IG December 1805, Marine Corps 
Orders, Marine Corps Archives; and in Marino Officers' 
Letter Book, No. 1, Navy Archives) 

February 9, 1806 (Officers): "To answer the wishes 
of Officers at Headquarters, as expressed bv a letter from 
Captain John Hall to the Commandant: It is Ordered; that 
in future officers, may appear on the Morning ^ Evening 
Parades, only in Coats as discribed in orders by the Sec- 
retary;- of the Navy wiXh the exception of Lace, This Order 
can in no way militate against the Groneral Orders, issued 
under the 14th of October 1805, The Uniform Coat therein 
discribed to be worn will, on all other duty than the a.bove 
mentioned certainly be expected," (Order of "''Tnarton. Marine 
Corps Orders, 9 February 1805, Marine Corps Archives) 

March 8, 1806 (Enlisted Men): "On the 6th instant 
you remarked to me tha.t a small part of the Marines on 
parade that day were in a different uniform from the others. 
They were from the Enterprize . i^ftiite belts I presume irou 
pa.rticularly alluded to. They have been a,dopted in the 
United States, but the difficulty attending a general 
change in this country was my principal rea^son for not 
attempting the alteration, A partial one I conceive ^'^ould 
be improper, as it would appear unmilitary, waen the 
whole would be a.ssem.bled together, to see in so small a 
party so much dissimilarity." (Captain Anthony Cale to 
Commodore John Rodecers, 8 March 1806, John Rodscers Letters, 
1791-1836, Na.vy .\rchives) 

May 5, 1806 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Ordered, 
That the Summer Uniform be worn on 5: after the lOth of 
this Month." (Order of Wharton. Marine Corps Orders, 5 
May 1806, Marine Corps /Vrc.iiives) 



.42- 



Uniforms -43- A'-^erican L5a,rines 



Ms.y 5, 1806 (Enlieted Men): "That Dou>Dts may not arise 
qs to the Pantaloons, ordered to be worn bv the Secretary 
of the Navy, 5c to remove -nny impresRion noi^^ formed, as to 
the texture of the Stuff, of which they may be m^ide it is 
to bo understood, that they axe to be white ( Plain ) without 
reference to ?ny particular oup.lity." (Order of ^'^harton. 
Marine Corps Orders, 5 May 1806, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 9, 1806 (Officers): "Ordered, Th.^t in future 
officers, appear, when on dutv , as-rceably to the Sumner 
EstTblishracnt , with Round Hats, etc," (Order of '^larton, 
M^-^rine Corps Orders, 9 May 1806, Marine Corps !\rchives) 

If^ 12_, 1306 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Direct 
the Qua.rtermaster to render the accountant of the Na,vy 
quarterly accounts * * * of all the clothing * * *." 
(Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith to Wliarton, 12 May 
1806, Marine Officers' Letter Book, No. 1, Navy Archives) 

Ml l^y 1806 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "I h^ve 
no objection to the postponement of the ope^ ra.tion of my 
Order of the 13th Inst, respecting ?/[arine Clothing to the 
10th of June * * *." (Secretary of the Na^^r^ Robert Smith 
to -Pns.rton, 15 June 1806, Marine Officers' Letter Book, 
No. 1, Navy Archives) 

Yellow Bands and Tassels 

July 7, 1806 (Enlisted Men): "Yellow ba„nds and tassels 
in place of those described, under ray order of the 14th of 
October, 1805, will in future be worn by the Non-Com.missioncd 
Officers, Musicians, and Privates of the Marine Corps," 
(Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith to Wha.rton, 7 July 1806, 
Marine Corps Archives; and in Marine Officers' Letter Book, 
.No. 1, Navy Archives) 

Black G-a.iters to Knee ; Fea.thrrs for Musics 

Oc tober 81 , 1806 (Enlisted Men): Enlisted men will 
?jear "bla.ck ga.iters made to come up to the knee instead of 
the Calf of the leg;" and Musics may wear a feather instead 
of a plume, the fea.ther to be worn on the side of the cap. 
(Secretary of the Na,vy to Hharton, 21 October 1806, Marine 
Officers' Letter Book, No. 1, 33, Navy Archives; McClrllan, 
Hist. U.S.M.O., 1st ed. , I, Ch. XVI, p. 66) 



•43- 



Uniforms -44- Amcricf^n Marines 



PERIOD 
1807-1812 

TliG old-f gshxioned uniform continued during this -orriod. 
Cocked hp.tG or chapeau bras i^'ore ^-'orn "bv the OfiiccrR qnd 
flour Fp.p Btill purchased for poT^dering the queues ^m\ hair 
of the Ma.rines. Leather Cockades, scp.rlet plumes ^nd sa.ahes, 
gold counter-straps, g:old epaulettes, yello^' mounted sabres, 
vrhite cross-belts vdth gilt plates, added to a sca.rlet and 
blue coa.t, ^'hite trousers .^nd vest, bla,ck leather stocks, 
black knee boots vdth bln,ck silk ta.ssels, is a picture of 
the Marine officer of the day. The foul anchor on the 
skirts of the Officer's Coat Fa.s repla.ced with a Laced 
Diamond on blue ground. The enlisted Marines were as 
attractively cla.d. The Leather Cap appeared, (McClcllan, 
Kist. U.O.M..C., 1st ed., I, Ch,. XVIII, p. 26) 

J8,nua,ry 6 , 1807 (Enlisted Men): "I am surprized 
tha.t you ha,vc not rood the Binding and Plumes for the "^^nd. 
The^/- i-'erc sent by the same Vessel, packed in a small "onx 
and put in the Cabin in Charge of the Ca.pt.'^in, They can- 
not possibly be lost, the Box xvas addressed to you anrl a 
Card nailed on the top of the Box, Your pla.te is not yet 
finished the fellow has put mc off from week to week ^"dth 
fair promises, Tv^o Vessels arrived here yesterday fro^i 
Alexandria but no Fifer or Clothing." (First Lieutenant 
John Johnson at New York to liliarton, 3 Ja,nua.ry 1807, Marine 
Corps Letters in Library of Congress) 

August 1, 180_7 (Enlisted Men): "500 caps. Octagon 
Pla,tes, Plumes & B^.nds * * * 25 pair of Shoulder Knots ^^ * * 
-xrey mixed coatin?: * * * 2,500 skeins of Bro^^n '^hresd, 
Strong, No. 10 * * * Button .Moulds Coat Snail * * * sm^ll 
3;ellovr Buttons for the Gaiters." (""Vharton to GrCorge Harrison 
Na,v\'- Agent at Philadelphia, 1 August 1807, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

October 31, 1807 (Officers a.nd Enlisted Men): "Ordered 
that the troops in future on duty annear in Uniform agree- 
ably to the '''inter Establishment." (Order of "'.Tiprton 'larine 
Corps Orders, 31 October 1807, Marine Corps Archives) 

December , 1807 (Enlisted Men): The Estim'-^tes computed 
in December, 1807 included rpl50.00 for "flour for hair 
powder." (McClellan, Hist. U.S.M.C, 1st ed . , I, Ch. XVIII, 
P. 42) 

February 18 , 1808 (Enlisted Men): "As I have not a 

-44- 



Uniforms -45- Americin i/!arines 



pe.ir of JrdlteTs in Store I thought it "iDest to cut off ei^ht 
ya.rde of the bla.ck cloth which I intend shall be made wo by 
ray own taylor, I will give the Quarter 'laster credit for 32 
pair the nurr.ber the cloth will make I hoDe this act you ^-^ill 
approve of. * * * P.S. liy store is nearly ernty - I have no 
knapsacks, pluraes, plates bands, but few caps, no fat i rue 
clothing - and but very fenr of any articles blankets and 
shoes exceTDted." (Captain Anthony Oale to Wharton, 18 
February 1808, Marine Corps Letters in Library of Congress) 

May 37 , 1808 (Officers): "Ordered that after the first 
of next nonth the Officers appear when on duty agreeably to 
the Summer Esta.blishment with Round Mats etc," (order of 
lYharton, Marine Corns Orders, 27 May 1808, Ma.rine Corps 
Archives) 

August 23, 1808 (Enlisted Men): "The fatigue dress 
which has been issued for the purpose of preserving as much 
as possible the Uniform Dress of the Corps will at all times 
be worn by the men when not on duty. It is therefore ex- 
pressly order 'd tha.t no Soldier be permitted to we^r his 
Uniform except on occasions which require a, '/[ilitary appear- 
ance, at or absent from the command, of which the Officer 
Comm.anding in Baxra.Jks will judge." (Order of i.lTiarton, 
Marine Corps Orders, 23 \ugust 1808, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 9, 1808 (Officers and Enlisted Men); "Ordered 
that the Troops in future on duty appear in Uniform agree- 
ably to the Winter Establishment a.nd that Troop bea.t at 
9 o'clock and Ta,ttoo 8 untill further orders.'' (Order of 
IfVharton, Marine Corps Orders, 9 October 1808, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

November 27 , 1808 (Officers): "Ordered that the 
officers of the Marine Corps wear a Crape on their left 
arm, and on the Hilt of their Swords, for one month, in 
testimony of their Res-oect for Li?ut* Williara Amory, a 
Brother Officer, deceased." (Order of Wharton, Marine Corps 
Orders, 27 November 1808, Marine Corps Archives) 

March 21, 1809 (Enlisted Men): "Purchase for the use 
of the Marine Corps * * *: 20 pieces of coating, 5 pieces of 
cotton for lineing, 3 pounds of thread and six gross of vest 
buttons," (Acting Secretary of the Naw Charles W. Golds- 
borough to Wharton, 21 March 1809, Marine Officers' Letter 
Book, No. 1, NavA/ Archives) 

April 3, 1809 (Enlisted Men): "Blue cloth * * * scar- 
let cloth * * * grey mixed coating * * * bai^:'^ any colour 

-45- 



Uniforms -46- Anerican llarinee 



* * * yellow "binding * * * black cloth * * * large metal 
buttons * * * small metal iDuttons * * * small yellow buttons 

* * * wa.tch coats * * * brown linen * * * cotton or linen 
for lineing * * * blunt needles * * * assorted thimbles 

* * * lej'ge scissorso " (Acting Secreta.ry of the Naw 
Charles IV, Ooldsborough to Wharton 3 April 1809, Marine 
Officers' Letter Book, No. 1, Navy Archives) 

Laced Diamonds on Officers ' Oca, ts 

June 9 , 1809 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Orders - 
In fu"iure cocked Hats will be ?/orn in lieu of the Round, 
by Officers for the Summer Establishm.ent ; and a La.ced Dia- 
mond, on blue Ground, instead of the Foul Anchor, will 
be placed on the Skirts of their Uniform Coa,ts, And It is 
directed that from and a.fter the 10th Inst, the "rocps 
a.ppear, (when on duty,) agreeably to the Summer Establish- 
ment, until farther orders." (Order of "l^arton. Marine CorDS 
Orders, 9 June 1809, Marine Corps Archives) 

Forma-l Uniform Order 
"TApril 19, 1810y~ 



"To collect & present to view the different orders for 
the uniform of the Corps, the following by command of the 
Secret a,ry of the Navy, in repealing all others, must be con- 
sidered as fully established 3: strictlv attended tc. " (Order 
of ViHiarton , Marine Corps Orders, 19 <\.pril 1810, Marine CorDS 
Archives) 

The following Dress will be 
the Uniform of the Marine Corps. 



Officers ; 

Navy blue coat, buttoned across the breast, with t^^^o 
rows of Navy buttons, eight on each side, the button-holes 
la.ced, & brot to a point in the center thus, 

"^^^^ 

three buttons on the sleeves laoed in the same manner; the 
pockets with three buttons plac'd &■. with lace simiilar to the 
sleeves; the collar of scarlet, with two buttons on each 
side la.ced; laced cuffs sca.rlet , the skirts turned up with 
scarlet & two laced Diamonds on blue ground on each thus, 

-46- 



UniforniB -47- A-'it-rican I/I^rines 



the l."^ppol8 01 the coa,t lin'd -nrith ecprlct & three button- 
holes laced on epch Pide, this however not to be seen i-'hen 
on duty in Winter. Vest & p^ntn.loons white: Cook'd Hat, 
or Shape^u-bras , with q-old l.^ce-loop, & mvy button under 
the cockade, the oochade of^len.ther thus df^pcribed, 

the Hat to 'oc vjoxn over the ris'ht eye, the ran3;e oi the 
cock of the Hat of course over the left eye, with :>old 
Tassels from the sides. Scaxlet Tolurnes; the hnir queued 
and powder 'd. The officers when in full uniform, nre to 
vrear a scarlet sash round the waist, outside the coat «nd 
over the belt, tied on the left side & over the left thigh. 
Pla.ck Boots to the knee, with black silk Tnssels. Black 
IC'-^ther stock when on duty. 



'^hi'; Officers G-rades 
a.re to be desig^np.t ed in the following; nsnner viz . 

A Colonel Two (lold ETD??uletts, one on e^ch shoulder, 
A Major Ti^fo Sold "Eiopiuletts , one on e.-^ch shoulder, 
A Captain a G^old Epaulet t on the right shoulder & 

a CrOld counter-strRp on the left. 
A First Lieut, a CJold E-paulett on the right shoulder, 
A Second Lieut, a G-old Ep.^^ulett on the left shoulder. 
The Staff to x^ear a 3-old Eupiulett, & Counter-Strap 

embroidered on blue Cloth. 
Side Arms - Yellow-mounted Sabres, with Gilt Fc^bb^rdB 

& white cross belts with Gilt Dl.ites, 

The Uniform of IH a.rines ; 

To be a coetee sinf^le brea.sted, one row of buttons, 
yellov worsted binding- on each side, the extreme ends of 
which represent a half Diamond thus, 

white cloth -o-^ntaloons , with black cloth Gaiters to the 
knee. Linen overhalls in Summer, high or own' d Caps, ^r^ithout 
a brim, & a plume of red plush on its front, with a brass 
eagle and pla.te. Hat-band of yellow cord, with a 'I'a.ssel of 
the same colour. 

Sergeants, to wear leather cockades on the left side 
of the Hat , v^ith Sca.rlet plumes. 

Washington Approved 3: Order 'd 

April 19, 1810 Paul Hamilton 

Secretary of the Navy 



.47- 



Uniforms -48- Araericsn I'larines 



(Order of ITharton, Marine Corps Orders, 19 April 1810, 
Marine Corps Archives; Henderson to Secretary of the 
Navy Levi ^"ood'oury, 14 October 1831, Naw Archives, en- 
closing a copv of this Uniform Order; McGlellan, Hist. 
U.S.M.C., 1st ed., I, Ch. XVIII, pp. 42-43) 



May 31, 1810 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The un- 
common sta.te of the weather will make it proper to adopt 
immediately the Summer Establishment for Dress. The Troops 
will therefore apoear when on duty a.greeaoly to it until 
further orders." (Orders of ^ATiarton, Marine Corps Orders, 
31 May 1810, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 36, 1810 (Enlisted Men): "* * * No Soldier 
on any a.ccount be permitted in future to sell or barter 
any article of clothing within the a.bove description. " 
(Order of ^.?harton, Marine Corps Orders, 26 October 1810, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Ja/nua-ry 7, 1811 (Enlisted Men): "I must request your 
economy in it f~the distribution of men's uniform.sj . This 
is the residue^of last yea.r, a.nd remember appropriations 
for the present is not made and tha.t Men, as they arc forced 
to d© :^requently in the Armj^, must wear the Clothing in use 
longer than we ha.ve been in th") habit of doing. * * * i 
contemplate issuing leather foraging oa.ps, for the Fatigue 
Hats now worn, and woolen half-hose, or stockings in lieu 
of socks." (^"Tiarton to Captain John Hall, 7 Januajry 1811, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

February 3, 1811 (Enlisted Men): "The Ca.ps and Hose 
are partly contracted for." (I'Jlia.rton to First Lieutenant 
John Brooks Jr. at Boston, 3 Februa.ry 1811, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

February 4, 181 1 (Enlisted Men): "I have not received 
the Gaps or hose hy Mr. Shields, and I do not know that 
they will be of service now having d.irected Capt. Cale to 
make contracts at Philadelphia of the former 0,rticle} and 
in due time shall instruct him on the latter a.rticle. " 
(^'/harton to Can tain John Hall a,t New York, 4 February 1811, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Februa .ry 12 , 1811 (Enlisted Men): "I find great 
difficultv in ma,kin&' a contra^ct for the C«ps in your City 
and I expect must resort to some other place. Capt. 

-48- 



Uniforms -49- American Marines 



Fenwick has descriloed vrhat I ^''ant . It is trifling in the 
expense and no 2;reat trouble. I yesterday received tro 
t)at terns from Mr^ Kinsey, neither of ^-^'hich I t^'ould have 
* * ^ no more than one dollar v-m be allored. " ( '■■'ifhar t on 
to Captain Anthony Gale at Philadelphia, 12 February 1811, 
Marine Corps \r chives) 

February 15, 1811 (Enlisted Men): "Mr. Kinsev con- 
forrning to my terms vill I expect immediately commence the 
'^rork, as I sha.ll Fant one hundred Caps here within three 
V'eeks« " (iVharton to Captain Vnthony G-ale, 15 Februa.ry 
1811, Marine Corps \r chives) 

Februa.ry 19, 1811 (Enlisted Men): "As soon as vou 
can, forward the first supply of Caps from Mr, Kinsey." 
(idTiarton to Captain Anthony G-ale, 19 Febru-^ry 1811, x/I'^rine 
Corps Archives) 

Mar ch 11, 1811 (Enlisted Men): "I shall very soon 
want Caps from Mr, Kinsey, about 200 to 250. They ou2;ht 
to leave your City within a ^J^'eek," (riiarton to Captain 
Anthony Gale, 11 March 1811, Marine Corps \rchives) 

M a.rch 14 , 1811 (Enlisted Men) : "I ha.ve made some 
alteration in a, part of the Clothing I'-hich is allox^'ed to our 
Men & rhich I think you ^^ill approve; a,s it will tend much 
to their comfort & I think aTDoea.rance , it is a. substitution 
of the leather Forra^:?;ins: Caps a^s Fatij::ue, for the Hat nov 
used, which T-'ill be more portable in the Knapsack & perhaps 
more military, althoU:'3;h in Fa,ti3;ue, & I have adopted the 
Half Hose instead of the socks, rliich are certainly more 
capable of ansi?'ering the End for ^-'hich they are intended, 
than the socks, neither of them ^re yet in use, ■'"^-hen they 
a.re you •■'^ill be supplied, you must remember hc^^ever , th^t 
a.s I hi^.ve a,dded in value these Articles, considerable^ above 
the former, one of them beins: perfectly durable, must carry 
that value vrith it, 8c therefore 2 Caps will only be allo^Td 
for the term of Inlistmcnt & ^^hich ought not to be consider- 
ed hard, as no Lav -^luthorizes the Ispuc, ^nd not a. cent be- 
yound the Com.mon iDnropri-^'-.ion has been given by Congress." 
(i'i/h.arton to Major Daniel Ca.rmick at Nev Orlc?^ns, 14 Ilarch 
1811, Marine Corps Archives) 



April 27, 1811 (Officers and Enlisted Men): 
Lge you ha.ve made in the uniform cannot but be 



"?he 

change you ha.ve made in the uniform cannot but be ^onrcved 
of by both officers and men, A great sa.ving of cloth might 
a.lso be made in shortening the overalls, so as just to join 
the short hose. If it iDrojocts over, the ancle rill ^ppc?^r 

-49- 



Uniforms -50- Ajaoiicpin !-!arinee 



thick n.nd clurasy. I would like^ase recommend (r-ith due 
TDerraiseion) the curtpilin^ of the Stocks, tv^o T"ould "be 
sufficient for the five yep.rs. I Fore one myself nine ve3.rB 
•-^nd then only Inld it aPide becp.uRe it "n-qs out of fashion, 
not thflt it i^^B.s any the vioxer- for the wear." (Major Dpniel 
Cprmick at l\Iew Orleans to ''Jhprton, 37 'VDril 1811, Marine 
Corps /Vrchives) 

May 31, 1811 (officers anci Unlisted Men): "The '^roons 
in future ^?"ill appear vhen on duty in Uniform agrrea'oly to 
the Summer Establishment," (Order of Wharton, Ma.rinc CcrDS 
Orders J 31 May 1811, Marine Corps Archives) 

February 14, 1813 (Officers); "In testimiony of respect 
for the memory of the l^.te Lt. Lf^e Massey of tho Corps ■^'ho 
died on the 7th Inst, it is hereby ordered thp.t crape be 
v'crn on the left arm and hilt of the Sword for one month 
from this date," (Order of ''"''harton, Mf^rine Gor-ps Orders, 
14 February 1813, Marine Gcll ps Archives) 

March 19 , 1813 (Officers): "In testimony of respect for 
the memory of the late Caotain Ht'nry Caldv^ell who died on the 
13th Inst, it is hereby ordered tha.t crape be worn on the 
left arm and hilt of the Sv-ord for one mionth from this date« " 
(Order of Wharton, Marine Corps Orders, 19 Ma.rch 1813, ^liarine 
Corps Archives) 

May 31, 1813 (Officers an'-i Enlisted_ Men) : "The ^roops 
in future will a.ppear when on duty agreeablv to the Summer 
Establishment." (Order of lliarton. Ma.rine Corps Orders, 
31 May 1813, Ma,rine Corps Archives) 

June 18 , 1813 , (Enlisted Men): "I shall very soon wa.nt 
a small supply of the Blue, and Red, or Scarlet Cloth, for 
the Uniform Coa.ts. The Black ca,n be ^"ithheld for a, supply of 
the other Colors as I have on hand a. sufficient quantity for 
some months for G-aiters," ('"harton to John Bullus, N'^vy 
Agent at Uop^ York, 18 JTune 1813, Marine Corps Archives) 

August 13 , 1813 (Enlisted Men): "The wants of emplov- 
raent for our Ta.ylors and of the scarcity of Clothing on h^nd 
compel me to r'.raind the Manufacturer, throusrL you, of my 
impa.tience to receive a supply from him." (^ITiarton to John 
Bullus, Na.vy Agent at New York, 13 August 1813, Marine Corps 
Archives) 



-5C- 



Uniforms -51- ArncriOBn Marines 



WAR of 1812 
1812-1815 
^7AR vdth ALaiERS 
1815 

The Uniform, Forn by the Marines during the War of 
1812 ^,nd the War with Algiers, seems to Idc , in general, 
described in the Uniform' Order of April 19, 1810. (McClellan, 
Hist. U.S.M.G., 1st ed., I, Ch. XX, p. 28) 

A letter d.nted October 14, 1831 from the Commandant to 
the Secretary of the Navy submitted "Orders issued for the 
Uniform of the Corps since 1819." xAmong them ^^'?^,s the Uniform 
Order of April 19, 1810 and thqt of March 22, 1821. This 
might indicate thp.t no Uniform Order intervenec^ ; but only 
complete resep^rch will establish that r.s ^. fact, 

Where the above-cited Uniform Order of 1810 does not 
completely describe the Uniform, resort must be h^i.d to the 
Uniform Order of October 14, 1805 and Orders and Letters 
containing minor modifications of the Uniform between the 
latter d.ate and the end of the War with Algiers in 1815, 
To illustra.te: as late as M^rch 22, 1821 the Marine GoriDS 
Order Book conta,ins a. nota,tion on the margin of a, form.al 
Uniform Order, " See Order of the 14th October 1805 in rela- 
tion to the Lieutenant-Colonel's rnc' Captain's Uniforms." 

Among the changes a.nd descriptions of Uniform, bet^^een 
October 14, 1805 and the end of the War with Algiers, 
apparently not included in the Order of April 19, 1810, are: 
"White cross belts with gilt plates instead of the black" 
for Officers, ordered on December 16, 18®5; "a fe^.ther 
instead of a plume" for Musics, ordered on October 21, 1806; 
and the Commandants statement in a letter of October 11, 1813 
that "buff" belts for enlisted men ha.d "been positively for 
many years directed as pa.rt of our accoutrements." 

Letters in the Archives refer to coats, music coats, 
f atiguc-coa.t s , fatigue-jackets, coatings, wntch-coats, or 
"'atch-cloaks , f a.tigue-suits, f a.tig'ue-trousers, pantaloons, 
linen pantaloons, linen overalls, woolen overalls, uniform 




- , , — — , . — , — - .- - , - - , — , — — 

yellow Buttons for gaiters", kersev^ T.'oolens, ca.nvas, opize, 
scprlet cloth, "blue, red, and black cloth", cotton t^-illing, 
Russia drilling, and bunting. (McClellan, Hist. U.S.M. C. , 1st 
ed, , I, Ch. XX, pp. 28-29) 



-51- 



Uniforms -52- AnoriC'i.n !farinos 



lll^.ny errors hnve 'occn nn.dc by vTiterp rinc^. illuetr^tors 
in tlic M[arine CoriDR Uniiorra for this Doriod, \mong them is 
the illustration of ^, "M=^rine 1813," on p^ge 29, pprt '^^-•o , 
of "The Array =nd ITpw of the United States," by 'Triton, 
j^rdincr and Taylor, The inf orrn?i,t ion in I'lqjor Richard 3. 
Oollura's Histor-"'- of the Marine Corps, pp^e 73 th^^t "the 
uniform of the Marines for a .Ion? time nnd until 1839, t-.^.s 
8 green co^t f-ith ^--hite or buff facings, pn undress frock 
of the earae color, r snord ^^rith ■'^Tiite ivory cross hilt ^nd 
brass scabb^-^.rd, pind Trhite leather belts ," c^.n not be accepted 
in its entirety. M^^jor Collum possibly copied this d-^t^, from 
■^n article in th^:-- United S-^rvice Magazine, October, 1389, -o, 
379 Quoted from Preble. 



September 6, 1813 (Officers): "In testimony of respect 
to the m.emory of the l^.te Lieut. William sfhprp] Bush, rho 
gallantly fell in the a^ction -""ith the ' G^uerfiere on the 19th 
Ult it is ordered that crape be i^rorn by the OffiC(-rs of the 
Corps on the left arm and Hilt of the Si"ord for one month. 
Officers at dist.-^nt Command -^'ill execute this Order, ps to 
tim.e, from the receipt of it r-ith them,." (Order of TnaTton, 
Marine Cor^s Orders, 6 Sept-^mber 1812, liarine Corps \rchives) 

October 19, 1813 (Officers) : "In testimony of respect 
to the memory of the Inte C^pto John ^''illiams, f-rho died Pt 
Ea,st Florid^, the 29th from i^'ounds recei-^^'d on the 11th Ulto. 
in a,n unciunl, but gallantly conducted' contest against a, 
party of Indians & Negroes, it is Ordered th^t Gr^-oe be worn 
iDy the Officers of the Co.c-os on the left nrm & Hilt of the 
o^rord for one month. Officers at distant Commands "111 
execute this order, ^,3 to timiC, from the receipt of it," 
(Order of Tnarton, Marine Corns Orders, 19 October 1812, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Captiired British Ma.rines Uniforms 

J.^nuary 13, 1815 (Enlisted Men): "Being inform'd by 
Geo, Harrison Esqr. of this City you have the providing of 
the Marine Corps i^lth Clo^ thing etc. & by that CJentleman 
ndvice, I no^' ac^.^^int ;<^ou that I have for sale eleven 
hundred cpps, r-hich I think ■'"111 anp^''er ycur pur-ocsc. If 
you think proper I t^lll send you a -o^ttern of them. They 
vrcre intended for the I'larine Corps in Fovi" Scotia & v^s 
brot in this country p Prize. The price T-'oulrf be ^n o'-'^'ject 
c^. the elpgence of them you "'■^'ill no doubt approve of, P.S. 
The CPDS are complete i^lth Plum.ps, Fe-ithers etc." (Moss at 
Philadelphia to 'Tharton, 18 January 1813, Ma.rine Corps 
\r chive 6 ) 

-52- 



Uniforms -53- Anerica.n Ma.rines 



February 19 , 1813 (Officers): "As a. testimonial of 
respect for the Meniorv of the La.te Lieut. Joshua Prirae of 
the Corps, i^^ho fell a victim to a painful and lingerinnr 
disease on the 7th Inst, at Spcketts Harhour, on La.hc Ontario, 
it is hereby Ordered that cra.pe be vorn on the Left Arm and 
hilt of the Sword for one month, Officers on comjiancl or 
detached from Head Quarters ^"dll execute this Order from the 
receipt of it." (Order of 'Vharton, Marine Corps Orders, 19 
February 1813, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 



jVpril 1_1, 1813 (Enlisted Men) : Ha.ve your m.en vrea.r the 
"fatigue suit" when not on military dut^r. (^''harton to Second 
Lieutenant Sam.uel ^Va.tson, 11 April 1813, Marine Corps Archives 

April 17, 1813 (Enlisted Men): Blue Cloth, Black Cloth, 
Scarlet Cloth and ITnite Cloth, (^%a.rton to Seth 0. Macey at 
New York, 17 Aioril 1813, Marine Corps Archives) 

Mi-il ^3 , 1813 (Enlisted Men): "900 Caps complete rith 
Bands, Humes^ and Eagles," ('Yharton to Teors:e Harrison, 
Nav^r A.gsnt at Philadelphia, 23 iVpril 1815, Marine Corps 
Archives ) 

June 4, 1813 (Enlisted lien): "The '::'roops in future, 
will apne ar when on duty, in uniform, agreeably to the si.immer 
establishment," (Order of Miller, Marine Corps Orders, 4 
June 1813, Mf^.rine Coros Archives) 

June 39 , 1813 (Officers): "In testimony of Respect to 
the Mem.ory of the la.te Lieut, Jrimes Broom., Vno ■'Gallant Iv fell 
in the Action with the Shann on on the 1st Inst. , it is Ordered 
tha.t Crape be vrorn by the officers of the Corps on the left 
Arm 8z Hilt of the S^^^ord for one month. Officers at distant 
Commands will execute this Order a.s to time from the receipt 
ot it." (Order of 'Vharton, Marine Corps Orders, 29 June 1813, 
I'larine Corps Archives) 

August 35, 1813 (Enlisted !/[en) : "I received your letter 
of the 23d Inst this morningo Ut, Harrison has ackno^^^ledged 
the receipt of the bale of Cloths, which I advised vou of the 
30th Ult. a„nd inform.s m.e that in consequence of the line of 
stages via. New Castle bein^ interrupted bv the eneriy, that 
he should keep it until a safe conveyance to 'Washington should 
offer," (John Bullus at New York to T/harton, 35 \ueust 1813, 
Marine Corps Letters in Library of Congress) 

September 33 , 1813 (Officers): "In testimony of .Respect 
to the mem.ory of the late Lieut. John Brooks, who scallantly 

-53- 



Uniforns -54- Americnn llp.rines 



fell on board the La^^^rcnce on the 10th Inst, in ^n Action 
with the Knemy on Lake ^rie, it is Order 'd that ^Jrame be 
worn by the Officers of tlie Corms on the left am &. Hilt of 
the 3^-'ord for one month. Officers at distant Gonnands 
i^'ill execute this order, a,3 to time, from, the receipt of it," 
(Order of ■Tha.rton, Marine Corps Orders, 33 3eT)t ember 1813, 
Ma.rine CorDS Archives) 

Buff Belts 

October 11, 1 813 (Enlisted Men): "I do not see v'ith 
Ti"hat Di ODriety you can expect me to approve of any breach 
of orders from the Hoo,d of the DepartmiCnt, by ordering black 
belts to be used instead of the buff, ^^'hen the latter have 
been positively for m'"^ny yen.rs directed rs part of our nc- 
coutrem^ent 8. You observe hovever that those y-:u have chang- 
ed do not belon?^ to the Corps, I have consequently nothing' 
to do with them. How far you have the ri?^ht to m^ke the 
chanb^e undei the circum.sta^nces of exposure you can •'■•^ell judge 
of as pny officer. You will certainly be entitled to ^-h^'t- 
ever shp.re of credit or censure it may produce as an not 
totally your own. The clothing, due the men, must be ^riven 
to them. They ca.nnot receive money in liew of it. The 
appropria.tions will not therebA^ be a,pplied agreeably to law," 
('Vharton to First Li'^utenant H'^nr^y H. ?orde nt Ile^-'r London, 
Conn., 11 October 1813, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 15, 1813 (Enlisted Men): "The "roops until 
further orders will nppea:: when on duty in uniform qqireenblj/- 
to thr winter Est-^blishm.entc " (Order of "'Tin.rton, ■larino 
Corps Orders, 15 October 1813, M'-^rine Corps Archives) 

Ho^- embe r 15, 1813 (Enlisted Men): " \s Capt. K^ll hns 
supplied you with the n.rticles most needed by your C-uard & 
a,s I could not supply you with ^nythiner else immedi-^t .^ly I 
have dcfered, till now, am/" further communication on t'le 
Subject, Capt. Hall hag supplied you, I b'-^lieve, ^'ith ^', 
overalls, u. caps, fa,ti2:ues '^nd socks in pn.rt, I send on 
this day -^ further supplv of clothing, consistin;?; of '"atch 
Coats & Music Co--'ts & socks. Shoes q.re m.ade & delivered 
to Capt. Hall in l\Tew York, Cap-plat ob he has on h?^nd, ^ 
also Side belts, Scabbards &. plates. It is the colonel's 
orders, tha,t Drum heads should be purchnsed for your music, 
if they c^,n be ha.d, in Providence or Newport; & th-^t ^^our 
Side Belts should be repaired so far a.s they are capable of 
it. 'Vhat you have received & ^''hat is now on the ro-^d to 
you I suppose will supplAr you in overrrthing necessary. " 
(First Lieutenant Samuel Ba.con, '^uarterm.aster to Captain 
Robert Grreenleaf, 15 November 1813, Marine Corps Arcliives) 

-54- 



Uniforras -55- America.n ICarines 



Jpnuary 26 , 1814 (Enlieted Men): "I did not see ?^ny 
vra,tch coats on your last return of clothing on hand and have 
sent a, few on the nre sumption of their heinu of use to your 
men even in your climate, * * * Oon^^ress ha.ve not, as yet, 
deigned to turn an eye UDon us and I fear i^e sha.ll as usual 
pass v.'ithout notice." (First Lieuteno.nt Samuel Bacon, 
Quartermaster to llajor Daniel Oarm.ick a,t l^e^ Orleans, 28 
January 1814, Marine Corps Archives) 

Februar y 22, .1814 (Enlisted Men): "42 u. caps, Bands 
and Plumes," (Tirst Lieutenant Samuel Bacon, Quartermaster 
to Oaritain John Hall at Ne^ York, 22 February 1814, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

Hair Powde r 

March 25, 1814 (Enlisted Men): Annual Estimates 
allowed for "Hair PoT'der" under Contingent Expenses. (Sec- 
retary of the Navy to House Naval Committee, 25 .'larch 1814, 
Congress Letter Book, No. 2, pp. 260, 265, Navy Archives) 

Sa.mples of Uniform Cloth 

March 26., 1814 (Enlisted Men): "The Scarlet Cloths 
6ha,ll be delivered by the time you require. If a,ny, ns p 
som.eT^hat superior quality for the Non Commissioned Officers 
Cloathing. be required, I can orepare them." Mr. Darr 
enclosed "tx'^o patterns of the blue Cloth" Wiich he man- 
ufactured. The full 6/4 Fide at fe3,50 Der yard, "The 
lightest Color itps at first fixed on; but at present the 
darker is preferred and a,ll I now deliver for the Army are 
exactly of that sha,de and it wears well. " 'T'he two samples 
are still atta.ched to the letter in a, neat sm.all envelope 
effect* ('''/illia.m Darr, "Fordton Factory, C-erriantown" , 
Philadelphia to ""'liarton, 26 March 1814, Marine Corps Archives) 

Eagles on Drums and Motto_ 

April 9, 1814 (Enlisted Men): "24 New Drums with the 
Eagle rather smaller than is now painted so as to admit of 
a Label or Scrowl over the Head of the Eagle or from its 
beak with the Motto, United States Marines." (^n:iarton to 
Ceorge Harrison at Philadelphia,, 9 April 1814, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

October 1, 1814 (Enlisted Men): "^%,tch Cloaks" , "U. 
Coats (small sizeTT" (Ca^ptain William Anderson at Charles- 
town, Mass. to i^Tharton. 1 October 1814, Marine Corps Letters 
in Librarv of Congress) 

-55- 



Uniforms -56- Anericen I/is.rines 



H§.,i_r PoiKie_r 

1815 (Enlisted Men): The 1815 eetiraates allovrecl for 
"Hair Povfder" under "Contingent". (Estinates in Conc^ress 
Letter Book, No. 2, id, 375,''Na-n/ Archives) 

1815 (Enlisted Men): ^.'he estimates for 1815 alloved 
a Sergeant one suit at ^26.00; a Coriooral, Musician and 
Private one suit ea.ch 8,t ;-.24.00; each NGO a Fnot at ;i?1.50 
Der pa.ir ; the cap^ plume, band, and Ea.gle estiraated a,t 
.fS.OO each, one StocI: at 200 each, one pair of shoes at 
|l.25; one blanket a,t <?4c.25 and one '^Jatch Goat at :?12,00; 
a, knapsack, .'i>1.00; Brushes and prickers 25(^ each; fife at 
Al.OO; Drum, l^lOcOO ea.ch. (Estina.tes in Congress Letter 
Book, llo. 2, p. 374, Na.vv Archives) 

" British Regimentals " 

March 13. 1815 (Enlisted Men) : "Agreeg.hlv to ^our 
request of this da.te, you rill proceed to make the purchases 
in the usual way, for the Marine Corps, I vould hovrever 
recommend your x'^ra.iting a. short time for som.e of the articles, 
?/hich irdll pro'oa.bly fall to the peace price, such as blankets 
& clothing. There was a •■ua.ntitv of British Resrimentals , 
Musicians cloths etc, captured and sent into Boston, a 
particular list and description of i^'hich, I will send for, 
in order that you may determ.ine how far they will ans'-er 
for your Corps, with altering. Drums are also raa.de very 
good & reasonable at Boston." (Secretary of the Ka.v^r BJT. 
Crowninshield to ■'7harton, 13 !,/[a,rch 1815, Ma.rine Corps Archives' 

¥tM^ £lj 1^15 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The "^roons 
in future will appea^r when on duty in Uniform agreeably to 
the Summer Establishme^nt . " (Order of ^Iharton, Marine Corps 
Orders, 31 May 1815, Marine Corps Archives) 

June 20, 1 815 (Enlisted Men): "Expecting pBrevetj 
Major Miller vrill be v'ith you very soon I wish ^^-^u to .RSk, 
in my name, that he -nrocure for the Band a. B^ss Drum" of 
these dimensions; "Length of Shell two feet ten Inches, 
■''Jidth, OTiQ foot eight Inches with the Esgic and Motto same 
as on the Drums of the Corps." (^Yharton to Captain Anthonv 
Gale at Philadelphia,, 20 June 1815, Marine Corns Archives) 

pTuly 5, 1815 (Enlisted Men): "Plumes and Bands." 
(^ITiarton to Captain Samuel B^con at York "o^-n. Pa., 5 Jul;.' 
1815, Marine Corps Archives) 

-56- 



Uniforms -57- ,'\mpric?^n Marines 



OctoTpor 37 , 1815 (Officors and Enlisted Hon): "The 
TrooioB in future vi 11 rippcar rhon on duty, in Uniforn, 
^.crrceablv to the I'Jintor est^ibliBhrnent . " (Order of ^"hp'rton, 
Marine CorpB Orders, 37 October 1815, I!arinc Corps .\rchives) 

PERIOD 
1816-1830 

The Uniform of the Marines for this period, up to M^^y 
9, 1830) in zenerpl, oripears to be the Bf3rae as for the ^"^r 
of 1313 and IVar vrith \lgierB. It is possible, though im- 
probable, thgt continued research ^'^11 disclose g, nev uniform 
for thiF periodo References in letters 9,re m^de to c^ps, 
hats, ''R'lpizeQ c-^ps," fati^^ue h,?ts, leather uniform, cpps, 
cocked hats, plq.tes, plumes, bands, buff-colored gla-^rs, 
leather stocks, shirts, linen shirts, coats, uniform co-^ts of 
blue cloth, Music coats of scarlet cloth, coatees, fa,ti?ue 
jackets, fa.tigue jackets of dark mixed cloth and fptique 
jackets of gray mj.xed cloth mentioned in proposnls, Trpitch 
coats, watch coa.ts of gra,y mixed cloth mentioned in proposals, 
fatigue overalls, vililte kersey pantaloons, Miite linen p-^ntn- 
loons, trousers of gray mixed cloth mentioned in proposals, 
woolen panta.loons, shoes, boots, socks, knit i^ocks, goiters, 
black kersey or cloth gaiters, shoulder knots, yelloT^ bind- 
ing buttons, ta.Gsels of gold, scarlet cloth, blue cloth, 
baize, belts^ belt-plp.tcs, Sertxe^nt's sv^ordn and I/Iusic's 
SFords. (McClcllan, Hist, U.S.M.C, Ist ed., II, Oh. II, 
pp. 80-81) 

October 33 , 1817 (Enlisted Men): "I regret that there 
v^ere no uniform coats eent, r>s the Drummer (Fho has had a 
coat due him. since the 1st of June last) h^s not one fit 
to pppea.r on P'^rade. '^here is not a pair of socks on the 
St^tion^ " I "ha.ve not a .Tood uniform cap on hand," (''^■.'-•ptnin 
■"■'illiam Anderson, losport, to First Lieutena.nt \lfred ^ravson, 
33 October 1817, Out* Let. B-^ok, Norfolk Barrac]:s, Marine 
Corps A.rchivcs) 

Ja nuary 1, 1818 (Enlisted :,Ion): "Enclosed is copy of 
a, Resolution of thr House of Reprcsenta.tivcs , passed, on the 
33d da,y of December, 1817 and I reeucst that you vill inform 
me as soon as practicable, v'hether the Ma.rinc Corps m^y 
not, conveniently and ^yithout injury to the service, be 
clothed exclusively in the Manufactures of the United States," 
(Secretary of the Navy B. 1, CroTrninshield to Captain Samuel 
Miller, 1 January 1818, iMarine Officers' Letters, I, Ila.vy 
Archives ) 

January 3 , 1818 (Enlisted Men): "The articles rcjuired 
for clothing the Marines, are Blue, Black, Scarlet and Orey 

-5 7- 



Uniforns -58- Aranric.^n Mp.rines 



cloths, ^"liitG KerseA/s & shirting;, p11 of ^hich cpn be fur- 
nished from 4.rnericpa-i Manuf d.cture. But fron the svstera 
hitherto -DurGued in the Corpn in purohaBin?^ Articles fron 
those Persons only, ^-'ho could furnish of the best quplitv 
3nd the most reduced prices, there h.q,s been a Competition 
betv'eon the Govera.l '/[crch^nts, ^-'hich h^^s resulted qreatly 
to the aclvR,ntnge of the •'^overnraent , nnd for thr- Inst trro 
ye^rs, such rs been the lancoranon influx, of that des- 
cription of goods re-aiirod for clothing'; troops, and the 
prices so much reduced that no American Manufacturer could 
furnish the s^rae qualitv of Articles i^rithout making q'ront 
Sriprif i.ce. But as the particular Gircum.stance ■'^■hich cause 
the -^roat reduction in price of cloths of British manu- 
facture cannot be expected to take place a,gain, I am fully 
of opinion the Marine Troops can be furnished exclusively 
from the American Llanuf a.cturers a.t a. small advance -^bove 
v'hfl,t the re^Tular importer can supoly for, I ^ ould hov-ever 
beg leave respectiully to suggest, that in .nil cases in 
Fhich the difference in price and quality becomes an object 
of impor-1-a.noe between the American a.nd foreign M-^nuf acturers 
that discretionary;- power be granted to purchpse from those 
^•"hd vdll furnish most a.dvantageously to tne Public." (Caiot^in 
oarauel Miller to Secretary of the Navy, 3 January 181B, i'larine 
Corps Archives and Miscella;neous Letters, I, Navy Archives) 

Caps of llevr pattern 

A pril 3_, ISIG (Enlisted Men): "One hundred Uniform 
^8ve of a new Pa,ttern. " (Wha.rton to John Bullus. Na.w Agent 
a.t New York, 3 \pril 1818, liarine Corps Archives) 

April 16, 1818 (Enlisted Men): Purchase "three hundred 
Bands, one third n.s thick as those heretofore used, six yards 
long, with a 1'a.ssel at each end, the Band to be yellow * * * 
Three hundred Red Plumes a.greeably to Pattern materials, the 
same as the Army in ever-^^ respect o " ('"liar ton to 'G^eorge 
Ha.rrison, Navy .\gent at Philadelphia, 16 ^Vpril 1818, Marine 
CorDS Archives) 

Mav 23_, 1818 (Officers and Enlisted Men): ""he "roops 
will, hereafte-, 8:pT)efir in uniform, a/zreeablA^ to the Sumr.er 
Establishment, until further orderse" (Order of Major Samuel 
Miller, Marine Corps Orders, 33 May 1818, Marine Corps Archive 

July 17 , 1818 (Officers): "In testimony of respect to 
the Memory of Lieutenant William Brown, of the Corps, who 
died on the 19th Ultimo, it is hereby ordered, that crape be 
worn on the left ajm and hilt of the sword, for one Month 

-58- 



Uniforms -59- American Ma.rines 



from the receipt of this order." (Order of ^liller, Marine 
Corps Orders, 17 July 1818, Marine Corps Archives) 

Buff-colored Cloves 

July 39, 1818 (officers): ""o prevent the unmilit^ry 
appearance of the vnxiety of coloured Cloves, worn 'ov some 
of the Officers on Parade, it is hereby ordered, that no 
other colours, be worn except that of Buff." (Order of 
Miller. Marine CoriDs Orders, 29 July 1818, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

Mourn in.H Cr^pe for '"hart on 

Se-pt emb er 4, 1818 (Officer^.): "In testimony of respect 
to the Memory "of Lieutenant Colonel Franklin Tnarton, late 
Commandant of Marines, who died on the 1st Instant, it is 
hereby ordered,, that crape be worn on the left Arm '^'nd hilt 
of the Sword for one month from the receipt of this Order." 
(Circular Order of Adjutant & Inspector Samuel Tiiller to 
Anthony C-ale (New Orleans), Archd„ Henderson (Portsmouth 
NrH»), Robert D, I'^ainwri^ht (Boston), Richard Smith (Hew 
York), ^i/illiam Anderson (Norfolk, Van). John M. Camble 
(Philadelphia,), John Harris (Er:.o, I'a. ) , Richard 1. Ashton 
(Sackets Harbour, N.Y. ), 4 September 1818, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

October 11 , 1818 (Enlisted Men): The box, "directed 
to you, contains e, Hat; which the Inventor, the person, w>io 
furnished our new Uiiiform Caps, is desirous of substituting 
in the place of our common Leather Fatigue Caps, Hats of 
the model now sent, can be furnished at a very little m^ore 
cost, than the Leather Caps, at present in use; they will 
certainly be much more servicabie and ornamental, for the 
Sea,, as well as shovr service, IVill you endeavour to have 
them adopted for the Corps?'' (Brevet Major Richard Smith 
a.t Nevf York to Brevet liajor Archibald Henderson, 11 October 
1818, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

Oct_cbe2: 3;3 , 1818 f Officers and Enlisted Men): "The 
Troops until further orders vill appear when on duty in uniio 
agreeably to -che ''lintcr Establishment." (Order of Hender- 
son, Ilarine Cor-os Orders, 23 October 1818, I;!arine Corps 
Archives) 

1819 : "The Full Dress Uniform" of the "Lieutenant 
Colonel Commandant, Brevet Mpjors and CaiDtaine to be the 
same as tha.t worn in 1819 vrith the exception of the panta- 

-59- 



Uniforms -60- AmGricp.n IfarincB 



loons." (Quoted from Order of Pa.rke ''}, Hoivle , Adjutant &. 
Inspector, 22 March 1821 that went into effect June 30, 
1821, Marine Corps Letters, IJavv Archives) 

1819 (officers): A photograph of sn oil painting 
captioned^ "Uniform, i-^'orn 1819, Officer of U.S.Maxines, From 
a painting by a former Offiocr of that Corps; the original 
in the possession of Major Isaac To Doucrhty, U.S.M.C. 
Charles DeSilver, Publj,sher^ 1229 Chestnut St. Philad^," 
is in M:arine Corps ArchiYes. In this picture the Officer 
is wca.ring a SFord "^^Ith a. Mameluke grip and a silt Scabbard 
with frog. There is no authoritv^ kno^'^n of today, that 
authorized the Ma.raeluko S-i-^ord to be rrorn in 1819 ae th^t 
riiford was not mentionv-'d in knoFn Uniform. Regulations until 
April 26^ 1825, However, it may be that the Mameluke hilt 
si/^ord vjr^.B carried 'cy Mf^.rine Officers a.t an earlier da.te, 
for the earlier Un.lfcrm Orders do not describe the hilt. 
(Marine Corns Archives). Illustrations shoulc' never be 
accepted without corroborative proof of their -■^ccurc^py, 

Ja.mjP;^'y 31, 1819 (Enlisted .Mr;n): "It may be nsked why 
the clothing is not p11 made at R^-r-d Qua.rtors, and distri- 
buted hence thereby/ preventing these iriposit ions? My answer 
is, that the nature of our scrvj.ce is such, th^^t it will 
not a,llow of it being cut uv into so m-^ny detachments v^^ry- 
ing their numbers cver^r month, or oftener, -'nd almost pr 
often changing their stn,tion« ""Ve are thrrofore compelled 
to accomioda.te our m.e'^ns to these oxigencies reserving a. 
part of the appropri-Ttion , to en->ble us to m.-rke rr^nts hastily 
to be supplied and beyoixd our reach from this post within 
a given ximCo In such crises requisitions are a.lr'o.ys ordered 
to be supplied when the articles mny be rrq.nted, " "I there- 
fore m.ost respectfullv submit to your consideration, Sir, 
the prop'riei;:/ and expediency of -adopting the pl-^n of fur- 
nishing the Corps vdth clothing by contract, in lieu of the 
present, m.'^de. I think Sir, thnt plan ■'-'ill of f ectu;^lly 
secure ^n equal dispensation of justice to all - subjecting 
the clothing i-hen miado, to a rigid inspection - sr^y of three 
persons^ t-o of whom; shall be officers selected for the 
purpose by the govcrnm'?nt or thr Com.m.dt, of the Corps, r>nd 
the third a citi^i n to be chosen by th''^ contractor." (C^pt^in 
\lfrcd Orayson to S'-crotnTy of thr Fa vy . 31 Janu-^ry 1819, 
Miscrll'^meous Letters, I, N^-^vy Archives) 

G-alQ Succeeds '"barton 

Ma.rch 3_, 1819 : Brevet Major Anthony ^l^lo '-f^^.B appointed 
Lieutenant-Colonel Comm.Tndnnt of the Corps on March 3, 1819, 
<Vt first Brevet Ma.jor Sajnuel Miller (\d jut ant and Inspector) 

-60- 



Uniforms -61- American Marines 



and later Brevet Major archi'oald Henderson, served as /Ictin? 
Coramandant during the interval between the death of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Commandant Fre.nklin Miarton and appointment of 
''jrale. 

Yelloi?r Bindi ng" on C ollg.rs , Coat , etc . 

March 10, 1819 (Enlisted Men): "I have had the honor 
to receive your letter of the 5th Inst „ with ray Commission 
as Lieut e Colonel of lie Marine Corps for which I re-juest 
you will be plea.sed to accept my thanks. I assumed the 
command of the Corps yesterday a.greeably to your orders a.nd 
will give you a, Statsm.ent of the Streng-th of the Corps as 
soon as the returns can be prepared,, I have continued in 
office the present S"^o,ff officers a.s I consider them very 
efficient ones» The clothing for the supply of the Corps 
for the present year is not yet contracted for and but few 
on hand, I take the liberty to propose Sir, to insert in the 
public pampers, and a^dvertiseraen't to receive proposals for 
furnishing the whole quantity required it will be the me.^ns 
of having them all alike uniform and of a good quality and 
I presume on better terms. I propose also to mahc somie 
little alteration in the cut of the Coal at the shirt so as 
to be rounding and to ha.ve the Yellow binding "olaped on the 
top of the collar a.nd where it joins the coat and up the 
front of the same, I think it ^"111 look more milita.ry if 
you should think proper to ad.opt it ^ the expence will not 
be more than it is at present. I would like vour approbation 
also to adopt the same pla,n with respect to the fatigue dress, 
the ccntincls can bo racre ensilv distinguished nt niTht which 
is of great importance, " (lale to Secret '^ry of the lT.'^v3r 
Smith Thompson, 10 .M.^.rch 1819, I'I'-\rine Corps Archives) 

giag ^cd iXDB 

Marc h 34, 1819 (Enlisted Men): "The ra.^n, ^'^ho madx the 
Glased Caps resides in a village ne-^r this pla.ce. " (llajor 
Richa.rd Smith at New York to Gale, 24 M-^rch 1819, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

April 1, 1819 (Enlisted Men): "The :>l'^zed Caps I find 
will not answer (, They crack and gr-t so soft th,^t they look 
ba,d. " (G-^le to Major Rich'^rd Smith nt New York, 1 April 
1819, Marine Corps Archives) 

June 5, 1819 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The Troops 
will hereafter nppe ar in uniform, agreeably to the summ.er 
esta.blishm.ent , until further orders." (Order of liiller, 

-61- 



Uniforms -62- Amoricpn I.l.^rincs 



MP.rinf Corns Orders, 5 June 1819, Marine CorpR Archives;) 

Auacuot 11, 1819 (Enlisted Men): "Fourteen Serge.-^nt ' r 
=?nd six I'lueic's Swords which I have purcha.sed at five dollars 
each ?^nd delivered them to the N.^vy Store Keeper. "hey ?i.rc 
of ^-^n excellent quality & conRidered cheapc I could not 
procure those for the Music as rhort as you directed, but if 
you approve, three of the nuraloer c^m be shortened to the 
ieneth you direct either here or by your qrrnourcr." (■'^illi^m 
Re-^d for G-eorge Harrison Philadelphia, to "rPle, 11 Aup^ust 
1819, M'-^.rine Oorps Archives) 

Aug ust 17, 1819 (Enlisted Men): "■?ill for^""rrd the 
fourteen Scrf^e^nts -^nd six Musics Swords by the first oppor-* 
tunity. " (Willigjn Read for G^oorg:e Harrison to ^ale, 17 
August 1819, Marine Corps Archives) 

Sept ember 33, 1819 (Officers); "The testimony of respect 
for the mtRory of the late Cor.i.'iodor e Oliver H, VeTX-r ., tne 
officers of the Corps doing duty at Read Quarters will -wear 
crape for thirty days from the date hereof." (Order of G-ale, 
Marine Corps Orders, S8 September 1819, lia.rine Corps Archives) 

De cember 11 , 1819 (Enlistee' Men) : The wa.tch costs are 
to be distributed, "four to the Cyane , four to the Hornet , 
three to the Enterpri ze , three to the Receivinn; Ship, and 
six to the Barrack '^uar-d." (Actin.:^ Quartermaster 3er2:eant 
L. Porter, New York Parra.cks to Prevet M-jor Smith New York, 
11 December 1819, Marine Corps Archives) 



Janu ary _7, 3330 (Enlisted Men) i Adjutant a.nd Inspector 
advertised in ifashinr/'ton (National Intelligencer, 7 January 
1830) following proposals; 1,000 -.niiform coats blue cloth, 
42 Music scarlet cloth, 1,000 white kersev pantaloons, 1,000 
white linen pantaloons, 4,000 linen shirts, 4,000 pair shoes, 
2,000 pair knit socks, 1,000 pair black kersey or cloth 

gaiters, 1,000 fatigue jpckets and 1,000 fa.tigue trousers 
of dark mixed material. "A decided preference i''lll be f^ivcn 
to ,\miGrican manufactured cloths in every instance, " etc. 
( !,!Ia.,r i ne Corps \r ch i ve s ) 



> 



Janu ary 17, 1820_ (Enlisted Men): List of articles of 
Marine Clothing with prices submitted by Stephen Lf^ster. 
(Proposal of Stephen Lester, 17 January 1820, Llarine Corps 
Archives) 

January 30, 1830 (Enlisted Men): Samples submitted by 
Andrew ^acnus. (Proposal of Andrew Pachue, 30 January 1820, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

-G2- 



Uniforms -63- American IferineB 



Hgjr 

January 31 , 1830 (EnliBtod Men): Please send me n, cor)y 
01 "any regulations or orders directing the length or manner 
in which the hair is to be r^rorn by" ILarines, and if there 
are none, please direct "that puch raay be made as Fill en- 
force a conformity to a reaeonaole equality of length pnd 
appea,rance, both when on, rvad off parade." (First Lieuten- 
ant William H. Freeman at S^pketts Harbor to Adjutant ^nd 
Inspector, 31 January 1820, Marine Corps Archives) 

March 34, 1820 (Officers): "In testimony of respect 
to the memory of the late Commodore [Stephen"! Decatur, v;ho 
dei3r?rted this life on the 32nd Instant it iS" hereby ordered 
thnt Crnpe be ^^orn by the Officers of the Corps, on the 
left =i,rm and hilt of the sword for one m.onthc Officers on 
distant commands will execute this order, ?>.s to tir.e from 
the receipt of this." (Order of C-ale. M-^rine Corps Orders, 
24 March, 1820, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 3 , 1820 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The subjrct 
in rela.ting to the change of the Nav^l ^'nd Marine Uniform, 
being under considera.tion, I have to request you "^'ill, with- 
out dela.y, furnish an accurate description of the ch^^nge 
contemplated to be ma.de in the Uniform of the Marine Corps." 
(B. Romans to Major Samuel Miller, 3 May 1830, Officrrs of 
the Ma,rine Corps, Vol. II, p. 3, Havy Archives) 



7 , 1820 (Enlisted Men); "Having made a contract 
for the'^Year 1820, with Mr. Silas VL Sexton, of Philadolphia , 
for furnishing the Marines "^dth Clothing, of a. qualitv at 
lea.st one fourth suoerior to any former supplied, a.nd at an 
aggregate saving of near ten thousand dollars. ' I bes: leave 
to suggest, in pursuance of the same system of econemv, the 
propriety of reducing the a.llowan"e to ea.ch non-com.miissioned 
Officer, Musician and Private, in the following articles, 
and to the f (illo^'''ing number, for the time specified: - 
namely - Leather Uniform Caps, one during five yea.rs; 
American Manufactured Blankets, three during" five ^'■ears; 
Shoes of a superior qualitv, three pair annuallv. Knap- 
sacks two during five vears. The qua,litv and make of the 
articles for this vear , will fully justify the reduction 
herein suggested, without any possible injury to the Soldier; 
and the economy of the measure, will be too apparent to need 
a,ny further illustration." (Ma.jor S^imuel Miller to Secretary 
of the Navy Smith "hompson, 7 May 1820, Miscellaneous Letters, 
Vol. Ill, Navy Archives) 

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Uniforms -64- American Marines 



May 9, 1830 (Enlisted Men): "The allowance of the 
following articles, to ea.ch Non Com Officer, MusiciRn and 
Private of Marines shall after the first day of July next, 
be as is herein specified. Viz: one Leather Uniform C^-n 
everv five Years, three American Manufactured Blanket during 
the same period., three Pr of Shoes of cnood qua.litv, Annually 
and two Knapsacks every five Years. " (Secretarv of the Na.vy 
Smith Thompson to Gale, 9 May 1830, Officers of the Marine 
Corps, Vol. II, p. 5, Favy Archives) 

Full U r ess for Officer s 
(To take effect on June 1, 1320) 

May 9, 1830 (officcrc); "^^^e follo^^inQ: shall be 
after the first day of June next, the Full Dress Uniform, of 
the Subaltern Officers of the U.S. Marine Corps. Viz. Gaps 
with plates, tassels and bands. Goatees, similar to those 
of the men, but of finer raa.teria.ls, Cossack pantaloons - 
blue for the Tinter a,nd white in the summ.ere Boots, or 
Gaiters under the Pantaloons, You will issue a, Generr;-! 
Order on this subject, in which shall be specified in detail 
all the appendages and decora.tions of the principal garm.ent." 
(Secretary of the Navv Smith Thompson to Gale, Officers of 
the Marine Corps Letter Book, 9 M^^v 132C,II,P.4, ''avy Archives, 
See Order of May 13, 1830) 

May 13, 1830 (Ofiicrra): ""he following full dress 
shall be worn by the Sub- Officers of the United States 
Marine Corps (viz), Gp-ns with plates^ tassels and b^nds, 
Coatees with wind's, similar to those of the m.en but of finer 
raa^terialSc Cossack p^ntRloons white in summer and blue in 
winter. Boots or gaiters under the pa,ntaloons. Captains 
to have three Angles of gold l^ce on rach a rm_ above the elbow, 
1st Lieut s. tTi'O on each arm. 2nd Lieut s. one on each arm. 
This order takes effect on the 1st of June next. IT.B. Collars, 
full laced," (G.-^le to Gartain Robert B. Wainwrierht, 13 May 
1830, Miscell^^noous Letters, Vol. IV, lla^I^r Archives. See 
Order of May 9, 1820) 



K^^L 11, 1830 (Officers): "The following shall be the 
Full Dress of the Officers of the United States Marine Corps 
viz: Gaps with Plates, tassels and Bands. Coatees with 
Wings similar to those of the men, but of finer materials. 
Collars to be full laced, Cossack pantaloons, blur in 
Winter, white in summer. Boots or gaiters under the p-^nta- 
loons. Captains to wear three aneles of gold l-^ce on r^ch 
arm, above the elbow; First Lieutenants to wear two; Second 
Lir-utenants to wea.r one. N.B. This takes effect on the 

-64- 



U-niforras -65- Ancric-^n M-^rineB 



first of June next." (Circular of (l^le to Archibald Hender- 
son (New Orlenns), Richnxd Smith (New York), Robert D. 
■'Fainwrig'ht (Boston), William Anderson (Norfolk), John ■11. 
OimlDle (Philadelphia), Sf^muel Watson (Portsmouth, N.Ho), 
William H. Frrem^^n (Sacke-tts H^^rbour ) , John Harris (T^rie, 
Penn. ) , 13 May 181:^0, Marino Corps /archives) 

May, 1830^ (Officers): "In consetiuence of the m^ny pnd 
obvious disaavantB.ges under v.;hich the junior officers of the 
U.S. Marine Corps h^ve lon<^ laboured from tho present ex- 
pensive, cumbersome and unmilitary uniform, of the Corps, we 
the sub.'^lterns stationed at Head Quarters who from the nature 
of our duty experience its dis-advantn.ges most sensibly, h^. ve 
taken the liberty of respectfully solicit in,^ you as the Head 
of the Corps to use your influence with the honorable the 
Secret^^iy of the Nnvy , to remedy the evil of which we com- 
plain. I'Je would not '^hus far trouble you were we not per- 
fectly awa.re how r/iUch you consider the interest of Corps as 
your own and how willingly you would embrace ^nv opportunity 
of doini-7: that J which would in any degree, conduco to the wel- 
fare convenience and milita,ry appearance of the officers 
under your ccraraandr Should our present petition mort wi.th 
3rour perfect approba.tion, which from your knowledcre of the 
inconveniences of the present uniform we trust it will. The 
Undersigned would feel gratefull were you to l^y this our 
petition before the Honorable the SecretarA?- of the N^v"- and 
at the time use your influence for the advancement of the 
object for which we have the honor to address you. Ic shall 
not, sir, tresspa.ss too far on voar p-^tience, but briefly 
sta.te some of the most prominent disadvantages 'ittend = nt on 
our present dress, ps nothin";, conduces so much to the srood 
appear-^nce of a. Corps as a unifo^-^mity of dress in the o^^fici^r 
nnd the private, so nothing exhibits p, more unmilitary specta^- 
cle m the eye of a soldi-.~r than the contrast between the 
present dross of the Officers of the Line and the more 
ma.rtial appearance of the Private of Marines, This though 
in itself a "irifling objection, vrould be sufficient to den-^nd 
a cha.nge , were it not attended by disadvantncres of a more 
serious na^turoc 'I'he present Full Dress of the Corps is by 
far too expensive for thr generality of voung officers join- 
ing thp Corps, whose pa.y '^nd equipment are not in the s^me 
rntio with officr-rs of the Arra]^ or Navy. A Second Lieutenant 
of M-^rines with less pa,v thnn -^ny Commissioned officpi' in 
the Service of the United States is burthened with equipments 
double in nraount to those of » Commodore in the N^vv or 
M'^^.j or Central in the Army, the consequence of -"vhieh is, un- 
less he is assisted by his friends, he is compelled to draw 
several months pa.y in advance which is not only liable to 

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Uniforms -66- Amr;rican Marine r 



render liip eitua.tion extreraely unpleq,B'?nt but ■'''ill eventunlly 
destroy tlie finest feelings r)n6 first principles of ^ Soldier. 
These eiv ^ ^..le minor considerations when compared vith the 
clisqdvanxages experienced "by Officers serving on Ship Eo-^rd, 
This vre shn.ll merely observe thp.t our Chnpr^us long cor. ts, 
pnd tight pantaloons pre much too inconveniont and too lin.blc 
to be soiled in tne hurry pnc" bustle of f^. ship. Th*^ unrif^r- 
signed therefore rosTDect fully solj. cit the honorable the 
Secret nrv of the ]\i>i,vy to examine ihn m.erits and the dis- 
ndvpntp.geB attending the present dre^s of the officers 
of the Marine Corps an:'', should the letter predominate, v'hich 
from experience vro have found to be the c^ne, ^"C beg leave to 
recom.mend Goatees in the same form ^s those of the privates, 
Caios nnd plumes and p^-^'.nt^ loons to be T.orn over thp boots." 
(First Lieutenants J^mes Edelin, Robert M. Desha,, Jnm.c s I.T, 
Clements, Henry 'T.. G^'^rdner, Tncnif^s B. Barton ^nd Second 
Lieutenant R. Willip^p. '?, Xietcrof t , Richard D, Ireen, Ch'^rles 
Floyd "To the Coram'^ndont of the M^.rine Corps" K-^y 122 'j ^ 
Misoell'^neous Letter :^,, Vol. IV, Naw Archives) 

I^T.y 1Z_, 1S2_0 (officers) : "I h'^vo the honor to Ti'r'reps 
yoxx on beh^ilf of ^11 the Officers ^t Fr^d Quarters to permit 
them, to ^--jear ''Vings instead of Ep.-^uletts on the nev Uniform 
and th^.t the altera.tion may take place on the first of June 
of the present yea.r. Tne young gentlemen lately appointed ^- 
Fould experience considerable pecuniary embarassment ■'-^ere f^-S^y 
they corapellod to procure the present Uniform -^nd in a, shortA 
be co m.pelle d to alter it. Your orders on the subject is 
respectfully requested. Lieutenant Nicholron -t'-ill hnnd to 
you ^^eur former Order on this subjec-^o" (G-^le to Sfcret-^ry 
of the N'l^^v Smith Thompson, 13 I.fey 1820. Ilisccllrineous Letters 
Vol. Ill, Letter No^ 123, Ilavy Archives) 

L^Z 22 , 1830 (Officers): "The order respecting the 
Uniform of the Subaltern Officers, has been received, =ind shai: 
be attended to. Is the change of P.mtaloons '^pplic-^ble to 
the Captains and Field Officers of the Corps? Their Coats 
and Ch^poeaur.-^ rem.ain, I presume, as they are, Tlth the ex- 
ception of th'-^ three stripes of L'^ce abc-e the Elbo^^'. " 
(Major Richprd Smith to ^nle, 22 M^y 1820, II--^rine Corps 
/Archives) 

]i^y_ 24, 1320 (Officers): "I am entirelv nt a loss ho^^f 
to com.plv ritn your Order just recci^'^ed T"ith respect I subm.it 
to you the folloFing Queries, a reolv to v-hich I pre sumiO r-ill 
cle-^.r up the difficulties which noiv exist. '"he Full Dress 
to be worn by the subalterns of the Jfarine Corps. ' ^uerv 
is thrre ^ny clipnge in the dress of the C-^.pt nins, 'C^ps 

-65- 



J 



Uniforms • -67- \mcrican Marines 



vdth plates, t3,ssc-ls & bands. ' Query, Gaps oi ^-hpt for'^ri 3116. 
Materials, plates of I'hat ma.terials & ^^'hether of tlif s^^ne 
etajTip as the Men* 8. 'Tassels & Bands' of ^liat ma.teiia.ls 
a.nd hov; put on the cap, if any plumes. 'Coasts vith ""-^ine-s 
similar to those of the lien but of finer ma.terials.' No 
orders ha.ving been received .at this DOSt to change uniform 
of the Priva.tes, Query whether the win2's to be of s'old -^'ith 
a strap of embroidery ^ or all Gold & lace on the Coa.t '"hen 
the binding is used for the Men. If the coat is to be made 
exactly like those of the men. 'Boots or Waiters under panta- 
loons' Query, if optional whether boots or gaiters, ^f^hat 
belt T'rhether as now over the Shoulder or round the body , if 
the latter what plate & trirariings - whether the sash is to 
be i..-jorn - i-'jhat si^ord, Fhether the one noF vforn or another." 
(Captain Robert D. Vfeinwright to Jale , 24 May 1830, Miscellan- 
eous Letters, Vol. IV, Letter No. Ill, Navy .\rchives) 



Ma y 51 , 1830 (Officers): "The uniform is a coatee and 
similar to the present one trimed in the same maner t^'ith 
strap, and s^^ord in the sa.me kind of plan boots or gaiters 
as op-;ional - Cap plate """^ith two tassels of gold, the plate 
will be of the same a.s the men's." (Gale to Captain Robert 
D. Wainvfright at Boston, 31 May 1820, Miscellf^neous Letters, 
Vol. IV, Letter No, 113, Navy Archives) 

June 5 , 1820 (Officers): "'Vill you oblige me by giving 
an explanation of our present proposed Full Dress. I'rna t 
kind of Caps whether glazed or of fur, the order s^ys 'Co^tpof 
"'.'■'■ith win.gs simil.ar to thope of the men but of finer m.ateria.ls ' 
I am here at a loss to knovr wh.^t kind of wings, as I have 
never knov^n our men to ^^ear them. Are we to vea.r the S-'i-ord 
Belt & sash as formerly, and whnt kind of a plume. Are the 
coatees to be single or double breasted. I wish you to give 
me an ans^rer to the above enquiries as soon as convenient as 
I a,ra anxious to have my Full Dress made," (First Lieutenant 
Levi Twiggs at New York to I./[a j or Sa.muel Miller, 5 June 182C, 
Marine Corps Vrchives) 

June 10, 1830 (Officers .and Enlisted Men) : "The 
Officers and the Men sha.ll comm.ence wenrino: the Sumner n.inta- 
loons tomorrow morning on the Pa.rade." (Order of Gale, 
Marine Corps Orders, 10 June 1830, I./i^-^rine GorrriB \rchives) 

June 38 , 1830 (Officers): "TCver desirous to obey the 
Orders of my superiors I have endeavoured to form a uniform 
under the two communications I tra.nsm/xt vcu , but after the 
Officer now under my com-.viand, a.t much expence, had appear 'd 
on duty in the uniform I send you a description of, I am 

-6 7- 



Uniforms -68- American i/Iarines 



inform'd it is not such as is to be observM at Hd. Qrs. I 
hope Sir, you iPill favor us with an elucidating Order I 
trust the necessity of uniformity in Military dress will 
be ray excuse for intruding on your Domestic retreat." 
(Captain Rc^oert D. lYainwright to Secretary of the Na.vy 
Smith Thompson, 28 June 1820, Miscellaneous Letters, Vol. IV, 
Letter No. 110, Navy Archives) 

July 15 , 1820 (Officers): "I will thank you for a 
copy of the order from the Secretary of the Na.vy, respect- 
ing" the alteration of the Uniform, of the Officers of the 
Corpsn" (Major Richard Smith to Cxale , 15 July 1820, I/Iarine 
Corps Archives) 

July 17, 1820 (Officers): "Your letter of the 28 Ult . 
has been duly received and I enclose for your inf orm.ation , 
Copy of the order given to Col. Gale, in relation to the 
Uniform of the Marine Corps," (B. Romans for Nn.vv Depart- 
ment to Captain Robert D. Wainwright , 17 July 1820, Officers 
of the Marine Corps, Vol. n, p. 6, Naw Archives) 

July 19 , 1820 (officers): "Enclo-^.ecl you have a. copv of 
the orders from the Secretary for the altera^tion of the 
Uniform Dress of the Subaltern Officers of the Corps. " 
(Gale to Richa.rd Smith at New York, 19 July 1820, r^arine 
Corps Archives) Henderson Succeed s Gr^le .,as Commandant 

October 17,1820: Archibald Henderson appointed Commandant 
October "ST, 18l?0 (Enlisted Men): "The Troops until 
further orders will appear when on duty in uniform. a2:ree- 
ably to the Winter Establishment," (Order of Miller, 
Marine Corps Orders, 27 October 1820, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

October 27 , 1820 (Officers): "The Officers of the 
Corps on this Station, ha.ving expressed a wish that an 
altera.tion should take place in our present Uniform and 
believing it not contrary to the views of many on the Home 
Sta,tion, I take the liberty to send you the enclosed, 
trusting on its econoraica,l points for its adoption. "^he 
Grey pantaloons are intended as the Winter dress, for which 
white Linen or Duck is to be a, substitute in Sumrier. The 
Sa.sh has been dispenced with in the drawing, but is con- 
sidered a,s a part of the uniform. I should bog Ica^c to 
recommend tha.t all officers above the rank of Captain to 
be entitled to wear the same uniform as a.t present, but if 
performing field duty to be then a„llowed to wea.r short 
Coats with CockM Ha.ts and plumes. With much Consideration 
of respect, I submit this plan for vour approva.l." (First 
Lieutenant Joseph L. Kuhn, at Port Mahon, in the Mediter- 
ranean, "To the Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps," 27 
October 1820, Marine Corps Archives) 

-68- 



UniforniG -69- American IferincB 



November 8, ^20 (Enlisted Men): "Mr. * * * , of this 
District, who contracted to deliver for th*^ Corps, one 
thousand American-raade Blankets" and ^^'lio "obtained fro:'"-: the 
DeoB.rtraent the nhole amount in advance, has failed to comolete 
his en,q:a,gement , v.ath the exception of fifty delivered in 
October last J' The Commandant could not even "rem.edy the 
failure" of the contractor "by a purchase of the article, 
hox^ever a.dvantagcous it could be made," as the contrj^.ctor 
wa.s "-Dossest^ed of the rhole of the appropriation for that 
it(Dra" of blankets. (i/I.^jor Sam.uel Miller to Secrrt^ry of 
the Navy, 8 November 1820, Ma.rine Cor ;^s Archives; See also 
M".j or Samuel Miller to Edgar pattcreon. '^eorgetorm, D.C., 
8 November 1820, Marine Ooros Archives ) 

PERIOD 

1821-1829 

(Piracy in the West Indies, 1818-1830) 

March 22 , 1821 (Officers): On the m.a.rgin of ^. form.pl 
Uniform Order is written the following note: "See order of 
the 14th Oct. 1805 in relation to the Lieutenant Colonel & 
Ga.ptsiins Uniform." (Marine Corios Orders, 2-^ March 1321, 
Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

Formal Uniform, O rder 
("0 take effect June 30, 1821) 

March 23 , 1821 (Officers): ^h^t the follo^-inp: Drrss 
after the 30th day of June 1821 be the Full Dress Uniform 
of the Officers of th^" United States Marine Gor-os, Viz. 

"he Lieut cn-^nt Colonel Commandant, Ere^T't Majors 8c 
Captains to be the same as th^t i^^orn in 1819, V'ith the 
exception of the Panteloons, v.hich shall be of the same 
kind as hereafter prescribed for the Licuten.^nt s. 

'7hc Li'-'^utenant s to wear blue cloth Coatcce, single 
breasted with one row of buttons, eight in num.ber , (such 
ae the Honour pJdIc Secrc tar;,^ of the Navy has prescribed for 
the Officers of t.ie Corps) on the breast, the button holf^s 
Cold laced and brought to a point thus O- ";--' forming 
a diamond at the unper ends; button holes \y/'''^to be ^'orked 
a.s far a.s the dia.monds; threo buttons on the^^ Cuffs, Skirts 
L'^ccd & ■ orked -^e r-^ove the buttons on the Cuffs or Slenves, 
to be placed in a Straight line from^ the wrist, to thr bend 
of the prm; the Diariond to be placed upT'-^rds* The buttons 
on the Skirts to be placed in a, direct line lengthwise, the 
Skirts laced and worked as before mentioned. The collar 
of scarlet Cloth, t^-'-'o Buttone on each side l^ced thus 




•69- 



uniforms -70- American Ilarines 



and bound round with G^old lace. The cuffs of scarlet cloth, 
the upper pa.rt forming a half diamond, the point runin?^ to 
the wrist. The skirts turned up vdth scarlet Cloth. /V 
dinmond formed of Gold Iqce on blue cloth to be put on the 
skirts where the scarlet cloth meets; the skirts laced and 
worked similar to the cuffs. 

In winter Blue cloth or Casimere Goss?^,c pRnteloons o-^'-er 
Boots, In sum.mer PB,nt,'^loons white & plain, either of cotton 
or linen, ma.de and worn as above, 

Beaver caps 6-^ Inches high in the crown, with fan front 
of the sam.e materials 9-^ inches high; the brim or sh^idc for 
the face of Lrathcr 2^ inches deep; runing back as far as 
the temples. Black velvet bands a.round the lower part of 
the crown, Gold band & Ta.ssels, red plum.cs 18 inches long 
worn on the left side of the ca,p, a small Leather cocknde 
a.t the bottom of the plum.e , nea.r the edge of the Crown of the 
cap. Cap plates siraila.r to those worn by the men. 

White leather belts across the shoulders. 

Broad Swords with gilt or brass scabbards, 'Gold s-'-'ord 
Knots, scarlet sash around the Waist ^nd over the s^ord belts. 

Black l^.-^.ther stocks. 

Yellow Buck skin gloves; one gold wing on each shoulder. 

The rank between first & Second Lieutenants, to be 
designa.ted a,s follows, First Lieutenants to wear on each \rm 
above the elbows one angle, similar to those worn on the 
Cuffs, points running in the same direction, and of the Kind 
of lace; Second Lieutenants to wear one angle on the rie^ht 
arm as described above, /\. first Lieutenant in the staff, to 
wear two Angles on each arm. A second Lieutenant in the 
staff to wear, two angles on the right arm and one on the 
left arm.. (Order signed by Parke G. Howie, Adjutant & 
Inspector, Marine Corps Orders, 22 March 1821, i/Ia.rine Corps 
Archives; A copa/ of this Uniform Order is enclosed in a 
letter of Henderson to Secretary of the Na.vy Levi Woodibury, 
14 October 1831, Ma.rine Corps Letters, Navy Archives) 



Undress Un i f o rm Recommended 

May 11 , 1821 ^ (Officers): "I have the honour to submit 
to your consideration the propriety of adopting c^.n Undress 
Uniform for the Ma.rine Corps, There are two prominent rea- 
sons why this uniform should- be established. The first in 
order tha.t uniformitv of dress may be observed throughout 
the Corps, The second, that tho necessity of the officers 
wearing their Full Uniforms on ordinary duty may be obviated, 
and a. less expensive dress be substituted, I enclose a 
Draft of an Undress Uniform, made by Majors Smith & Gam.ble 

-70- 



Uniforms -71- Americp.n IferineG 



and Captain (Irayson, and would recommend itB adoption. In 
their report they have stated rea.sons in favour of the Crd- 
t3ins being fillowed to T^'ca.r two f<]Daulets and have recom- 
mended that the Comraa.nding: officer of thf Corps as a dis- 
tinction, should ha.ve a gold Star on ea,ch Eioaulet, Should 
you think it expedient to a.dopt these cha.nges, or to estab- 
lish an Undress Uniform, I will thank you to give an order 
on the subject," (f^enderson to Secretary of the Navv Smith 
Thompson, 11 May 1821, Miscellaneous Letters, Vol. Ill, 
Letter No. 30, Navy Archives) 

May 13, 1831 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Be pleased 
to transmit to me an accurate and minute description of the 
Marine Uniform, a,s established at the present time, for the 
several grades in the U. States Marine Corps, and also a 
similar description of the Full Dress, and Undress Uniform, 
as proposed to the Depa.rtment for adoption," (Secrrtpry of 
the Navy Smith Thompson to Henderson, 12 May 1831, Officers 
of the Marine Corps Letter Book, Navy Archives) 

Uniform in May , 1831 

May , 1831 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "he following 
is the Full Dress Uniform of the United States Marine Corps, 

Field Officers and Captains Full Dress . 

Coat 
Navy blue cloth, buttoned across the breast, with two 
rows of Navy Buttons, eight on each side, the button holes 
laced and brought to a point in the center, thus 
four buttons on the sleeves, la.ced in the same ^^ 
manner, four buttons on the pockets pla.ced and: laced, 
similar to the aJoove; the collar of sca,rlPt with two buttons 
on each side hooked before; cuffs of scarlet and l^.ced; the 
skirts turned up with scarlet, -^nd. two laced diamonds on blue 
ground thus, /"X^^ ^^ e^.ch skirt; the skirts lined 
with scj^rlet, ^^-^ -^ and four button-holes l^ccd (on 

the lappels of the coa.t ) on scarlet: this, however, not to be 
seen when on duty in winter, 

Cha.peaus 

Of the following form: the fnn not less th-^n six ^nd 
a h^^lf , nor more th-^n nine inches in the rear, nor less than 
fifteen, nor more than seventeen inches from point to point; 
bound round the ed^re with bl'^ck twilled, binding, one inch 
Fide. Cold tassels, gold loop and button, leather cocka.de, 



-71- 



Uniforms -72- American Ma.rines 



with gold ea^le, scarlet plume, to show t-nrelve inches afoove 
the cha.peau. 

Pantaloons 

In winter blue cloth, or cassimero, over boots in summer 
white or pla,in, either of cotton or linen, worn a,s a.bove, 
(they a.re to be cossa.c). 

Boots 

Gossac or half boots worn under the pantaloons. 

White Cross Belts 

With gilt pla.te and an eagle in relief. 

Sabres 

Brass, or gilt scabbards, gold sword knots when on duty. 
Scarlet sash aground the waist outside the belt on the left 
side falling over the left thigh, black leather stock, yellow 
buck-skin gloves. Field officers may wear tight pantaloons, 
¥rith staff boots to the knee, and spurs whenever they think 
proper. 

All Other Gomm-issi oned Officers Full Dress . 

Goatee 

Nav^/- blue cloth single breasted, with one row of but- 
tons, eight in num.ber (such as the honourable Secretary of 
the Navy ha,s prescribed for the officers of the corps), on 
the breast the button-holes gold laced and brought to a 
point thus, a n forming a diamond at the upper 

ends; ^v button-holes to be worked as 

far as the diamond, three buttons on the cuffs or sleaves, 
to be placed in a stra..ight line, from the wrist, to the bend 
of the arm, the diamond to be placed upwa.rds. The buttons 
on the skirts to be pla.ced in a direct line lengthwise, the 
skirts, la.ced and worked a.s before m.entioned. The collar 
of scarlet cloth, two buttons on each side la.ced thus, crn-r.xjC* 
and bound round ■'id th gold la.ce, the cuffs of scarlet rrr:iji:i=c> 
cloth, the upper part forming a, half di^tmond, the point 
running to the wrist. The skirts turned up with scnrlet 
cloth. A diamond formed of eold la.ce, on blue cloth to be 
put on the skirts where the scarlet cloth meets; the skirts 
laced and worked similar to the cuffs. 

-72- 



Uniforms -73- Amcricpn MprinPR 



Cap 

Beaver caps six inches liish in the crovn, ^ith fan front 
of the same ma.terials, nine and a. half inches high, the hrirn 
or sha.de for the fa.ce of lea^ther two '^nd a hg^lf inches deep, 
running back as far as the- te^raples, 31a.ck velvet bands around 
the lower part of the cro^n, gold band and ta.ssels, red -oluraee 
eicrhteen inches long worn on the left side of the cap, small 
leather cockade I'^ith a golc? eagle on it at the bottom of the 
plume near the edge of the cro"nfn of the car), a gilt or gold 
pla.te with a, gold ea.gle on it in front of the cap. 

Sword Belts, Plp.tes, Sabres, Sca,bbards, sword knots 

sa.sh, stock and gloves of the sarae materia.ls a.s the Field 

Officers and CaDtain, and worn as heretofore prescribed 
for Field officers and Captains. 

The Officers ^rrades are Designated in the following 
manner. Viz. 

A Colonel - two gold epaulets, A Major, two gold epaulets 
a Captain, a Gold epaulet on the right shoulder, and a gold 
counterstrap on the left, 

A First Lieutenant - One gold luing on ep.ch shoulder, to 
wea.r on each a.rm above the elbows one angle siraila.r to those 
worn on the cuffs, points running in the same direction, 
and of the same kind of lace. 

Second Lieutenants - One gold wing on each shoulder, to 
wear one angle on the right ^rra similar to those prescribed 
for the first Lieutenants, 

A first Lieutenant in the Sta.ff v.rears two angles on 
each a.rra. A second Lieutenant in the Staff wears two ^ng:l'^B 
on the right arm, p.nd one on the loft a.rm. 

Uniform of Mar in e s . 

Sergeants, CorDora.ls and Privates. 

Coatee - Single breasted, with yello"^' worsted binding 
on the breast, sleeves, « nd hiDS, in the herring-bone form, 
Coll-^r, cuffs and skirts scarlet. Worsted cuff wings. MiitG 
cloth cossa.c iD^ntaloons , worn over black cloth ga_.it ers, in 
winter; white linen overalls in sum.mer, Blaok leather cap, 
with a, plume of red plush on its front, with ^a brass eaiTle 

-73- 



Uniforms -74- Aneric-m M^.rineB 



and plate. Cap-band of yellow-' cord rith a tassel of the 
sa.rac colour. 

Music in.ns 

Goatee - of scarlet cloth, s-^rne cut and trimnin? -^s 
the non-comraissioned Officers a,nd privates - vrhite f poinds. 

Sergeants 

lYe-^.r leather cockades on thr left side of t^he c^ip rath 
scarlet plumes ten inches in length, 

(Order signed by Parke G. Hovde , Adjutant & Inspector, 
Miscellaneous Letters, Vol. Ill, Letter No. 44, N-^vy Archives' 



May 14, 1821 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "You i-ill 
greatly oblige me by furnishing m.e rith a. copy of the Ipst 
communication made by Lieut. Colo. A. Henderson, to the 
Honble Secreta.ry of the ¥.n.\ry , as res-pects the change r'-ished 
for, in the uniform of the officers and privates of the 
Corps." (Parke 0. Ho^/'-le , Adjutca.nt & Inspector to Benjamin 
Homans, 14 May 1821, Miscellaneous Letters, Vol. Ill, Letter 
No. 37, Navy Archives) 

Uniform Order Submitted for lioprpval 

May 15 , 1821 (Officers ^nd Enlisted Men): The folloring 
Full and Undress Uniform- is subm.it ted by the officers of the 
United States Marine Corps to the Honourable Secretary of 
the NavT,^ for his approval. 

Field Officers and Captains Full Drees. 

Coat 

Navy blue cloth, double breasted, buttoned across the 
breast, i"ith two roT/s of navy buttons, on epch side 

(such as the honourable Secret arv of the Navy h^ s prescribed 
for his officers of the Marine Cor-ns ) the button-holes 
laced P,nd brought to a, point in the center thus, cK/<5 
buttons on the sleeves, l-^ced in the same m.^nner, \/' 
buttons on the pockets pla.ced and laced similar to the 
sleeves, the colln.r of sca.rlet vith tv/o buttons on e-'^ch side 
hooked before, cuffs of scarlet and laced, skirts turned up 



-74- 



Uniforms 



Americp.n Ilarirxcs 



with scarlet and ti-^'o laced dia,mond.s on blue thus, 
on each skirt, the skirts lined mth scarlet, and 
button-holes la.ced (or the lapnels of the coat) on 
let; this, however 



, not to be senn v>'hen on dut:'- in 
Pantaloons 



sca.r- 
■^'inter . 



In winter blue clcth , or 



cassim^r cossac pp.ntqloons 



over boots; in summer white or plalitT, either of cotton or 
linen worn a.s above. 



Boots 
Cos6a,c or half boots ivorn under the pantaloons. 

Ohapea.us 
Of the following form: the fan not less thr-in si ?^ ^^nd 



a 



half, nor more than nine inches in the rea.r, nor less than 

fifteen, nor more than seventeen inches from point to moint; 

bound round the ed^^e with black trailed binding one inch 

""'ide, G-old tassels, 3:old loop and button, lea.ther cockade, 

with 2;old eagle, and a scarlet plume to shovr tvrelve inches 

above the cha.peau. 

IThite cross Belts, with r^ilt plates a.nd an Eagle in relief. 

Sabres 

Brass or q:ilt scabbards, gold sword knots, (when on 
duty) Scarlet sa.sh around the waist outside the bolt, tied 
on the left side, falling over the left thigh; black leather 
stock; and vellow buck-skin gloves. Field officers m^y i^j^eax 
tight pantaloons, i^i th staff boots to the knee, and sDurs, 
whenever they think proper. 

All Other C ommissi oned Officers Full Dress . 

Cop, tee 



Navv blut^ cloth single breasted with one row of buttons, 
eight in number (such a,s thr honourable Sr-crr-tary of the 
Navy has prescribed for the officers of the Corps) on the 
breast, the button-holt}S gold laced and brought to a point 



thus 



<^ 



-J 



-75- 



s 



Uniforms -16- America.n Marines 



forming g d ir3mond at the uTjr)er ends; button-holes to be 
worked as fgr 8,s the diamond; three buttons on the cuffs^ 
skirts la.ced and. rrorked a,s aboA/e, the buttons on the cuff 
or sleeves, to be placed, in a straiq'ht line from t.ie wrist 
UT^wards. The buttons on the skirts to be placed in a direct 
line lengthwise the skirts, laced and worked a.s abo^^e- 
mentioned. The collar of scarlet cloth, two buttons on ea.ch 

side la.ced thus, < .^ > and bound round ^-'ith gold la.ce, 

the cuffs of scarlet "^ — ^^ cloth, the upiDer part for^-o- 
ing a half diamond, the point running to the wrist. "^he 
skirts turned up with sca.rlet cloth. A dia.mond formed of 
gold laoe on blue cloth to be put on the skirts ^'^here the 
sca.rlet cloth meets; the f^kirts laced and worked, similar 
to the cuffs. 

Cap 

Beaver caps si.x and r. half inches high in the crown, 
with fan front of the same materials nine and a, half inches 
high; the brim or shade for the face of leather two and a 
half inches deep, running back as far as the temples. 
Black velvet bands around the lower -part of the crown, 
gold band and ta.ssels, red plume eighteen inches lonsr worn 
on the left side of the cap, a, sra'^11 leather cockade with a 
gold eagle on it at the bottom of the plume near the edge 
of the crown of the cap, a gilt or gold plate with a gold 
eagle on it in front of the ca.p. 

Sword Belts, Plates, Sabres, Scabbards, s^'ord knots, 
sa.sh a,nd gloves, of the same materials as the field officers 
and Captains, and worn a.s heretofore prescribed for field 
officers and Captains. 

Officers Undress Uniform 

The Undrei?s Uniform, of the Officers of the Corns shall 
be as follo^i's: 

Coa.t 

T\Tavv blue cloth singln breasted T"ith M^^.rinc 

buttons, button-holes work( d i-ath twist, in the herring bone 
form, Standing cellars of scarlet with t^^^o button-holf s on 
each side "^'orked 'with blue twiRt, the collar full laced, 
cuff-s and skirts turned up ^'-ith blue cloth, and buttons 

on each button-hole worked in the h(?rring bone form, buttons 
placed lengthi^'ise the skirts and sleeves, the upoer part of 
the button-holes in all instances forming a, diamond; the 



Uniforns -77- .A.neriGg.n I^xarines 



skirts of the coat to rea.ori as lo^^ as the oenci of the knee, 
and t^'^o herrin:^ bone diamonds pla.ced at the points of the 
skirt. 

The Officers grades are to be desiorna^ted in the follow- 
ing manner - "he Colonel to r'ear tx'^o oiittons on his collar, 
ten on his lorea.st, four on his cuffs, a,nd four on his s'-'irts, 
"he Majors and Oarota." ns to irea.r the sane number. Lieutenants 
to i'-'ea,r eiTht buttons on the brea.st , tro on the Goll^r, three 
on the cuffs, and three on the skirts. The Colonel to -"''ear 
a, gold eDaulet on each, shoulder, and one gold sta.r on each 
epaulet. The Majors to vre-^.r gold epaulet on ea.ch shoulder. 
Ca,ptains to v^ea.r a eoldx. eoaulet on ea.ch shoulder, ^irst 
Lieut anoints I'lien in full uniform to ^^ear one gold i^^in'^ on 
ea.ch shoulder, and to v-ear on ea.ch arm above the elbo^-s, 
one angle similar to those T^orn on the cuf"s, DOints rvT-riing 
the same direction, and of the same kind of lace, n'^iret 
Lieutenants ■'j'-hen in undress sha.ll -p-ear one n:cld epaul.-^t on 
their ri?ht shoulder. Second Lieuten?^.nt s ■'-hen in full u,niforn 
8ha.ll irear one ?;:old ^^ing on each shoulder, nnd one ^n :'1p' on 
the right arm similar to those prescri'~.cd for the first Lieu- 
tenants, "l.e second Lieutenants f^^h'"n in undress to ^'^ -^r one 
gold enaulet on the left shoulder. /\ first Li'utenant in 
the Sta.ff ^^lien in full dress sha.ll r^c'^r tv'o angles on o.-^ch 
a.rm. When in undress, an epaulet on the right shoul'lor and 
a, counter strap on the left. A socrnd Li^mjit ena,nt in the Sta.ff 
when in full dress shall vjc-b.t tv'o angles on the right arm, 
and one on the left; vhen in undress a, -rold epaulet on the 
left shoulder and a countcrctran on the right. A. s^sh i-'ith 
a black 1 :athcr i-'aist belt, i"ith ^^ello^"^ mountings, blue panta.- 
loons, an^"! a brass sca.bbard srord must be v-orn i"ith the undref 
uniform ■'■'^'hen on duty. 

U niform of_ M^r ines ^ 

Scrgrants, Corporals and Privates, 

Coatee 

Single breasted, v'itli ycllov worsted bindin? on the 
breast, sleeves, and hips, in the hi^rring bone form; coll.=^r 
cuffs pnd skirts scarlet. "'Torstc^d buff vrin.;7;n, ^^^ray cloth 
C0S63G pantaloons, worn ovirr black gaiters in vintcr; rhitc 
linen coss-^c overalls in summior, Bla.ck lenther cnp ^-^ith ^ 
plume of r^d plush on its front, vith ^ bmss e-^crle and pl-ite, 
C-'^TO-bnnd of velloT' cord, v'ith a t-^ssel of the sane colour. 



'7- 



Unii orrnG 



■78- 



Anor i c ^,n I,![ar inc b 



Musicians 

Coi.tce of scqrlet cloth, s^rie cut and triramin2;p ?ip the 
non-com-nissi oned officers a.nd -nrivates, - ■'^'hite rins'B, 

ocr:?erTnt8 to "'""ear loatbor cockades, on the left aide of 
the C'lp, Fith scarlet plumes ten inches in length. 

Note: There is inserted in slots in this conraunication 
a, colored dr^^'-ing of the Officer's Copt, ^s f choir's: 




(^.nclosed vrith Henderson's letter to Secret^.rv of the I'^-^^nr 
SiTiith 'Thompson, 16 M'-^.y 1821, [Miscellaneous Letters, Vol. Ill, 
Letter No. 42, Navy Archives) 



.j-old Stnrs for Co'.m-^ndnnt Reconn ended 



May 16, 1821 (Officers anr] Enlisteri Men): "I h-^ve the 
honour to transmit to you, papers No, 1. 8c 2. No. 1. Sho^'^s 
the Uniform of the Officers, Non-Co'imissi oned Officers, 
Musicians and Privates of the Corps, uncier its existing: 
establishment , No, 2. ohc^'B th.-^ uniform, "<"ith the proposed 
■^It or.T tions , a "nd the estn'olishmi nt of an Undress Uniform for 
the Corps. The alterations in the Full Uniform, -^s Dror-osed 



'8- 



Uniforms -79- American Marines 



are, that thp Lt. Colo. Commt . shall be allc^red to v'ear a 
:iold star on each Epaulett , to distinguish him from the 
other field officers, and that the Ca.ptain shall be Rllo'^'ed 
to wepr an Spaulett on each Shoulder, in place of an Epaulett 
and Counterstrap. It is also proposed to alter the r'inter 
pantaloons, of the noncoranissioned officers and privates 
from ^'hite to gre^/ 01oth. These alterations, and the es- 
tablishment of an undress uniform for the Corps, --^re respect- 
fully submited for your c onsidera.tion . " (Henderson to 
Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson, 16 May 1821, Miscellan- 
eous Letters, Vol. Ill, Letter No. 42, Na.vy Archives) 



May 31 , 1831 (Officers): "In testimony of rospect to 
the memory "of |_SecondJ Li'"ut. Charles Sears of the Corps, 
T"ho died on the 29th Inst, it is hereby ordered, th^t crape 
be v'OTTi on the left arm and hilt of the Sword, for one month, 
from the receipt of this order." (Order of Parke G. Howie, 
Marine Corps Orders, 51 May 1821, Marine Corps Archives) 

June 16 , 1821 (Officers and Enlisted Men): ""he "roops 
will, hereafter"^ T^ntil further orders) appear in uniform 
agreeably to the Sum.mer csta.blishraent ." (Order of Henderson, 
Marine Cor-is Orders, 16 June 1821, Marine Corpf. Archives) 

July 17 , 1821 (Officers): "In testimony of respect to 
the memory of Capta.in Willia,m L. Brownlow, of the Corps, 
vrho died a,t Head Quarters, on the 17th Inst, it is here- 
by ordered, that Cra.pe be ^^rorn on the left arm a.nd hilt 
of the Sword for one month, from the receipt '^f this order." 
(Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 17 July 1821, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Formal Uniform Order 
(Revoked August 25, 1831) 

August _3, 1821 (officers) : An order prescribed "the 
Undress Uniform Coat to be worn by the Officers of the 
U.S. Ma.rine Corps fran and after the 1st da^'" of January 
1822." (For complete Order see belovr; see also Order of 
Parke G. Howie, Adjutant & Inspector, 25 August 1821, Marine 
Corps Orders, Marine Corps Archives; copy enclosed in letter 
of Henderson to Secretary of the Navy, 14 October 1331, 
Marine Corps Letter Book, Navy Archives) 

August 3, 1821 (officers): From and after the 1st day 
of Ja.nuary 1822, the following shall be the undress uniform 
coat for the Officers of the U.S. Marine Corps Viz, 

-79- 



Uniforms -80- American Marince 



Nnvy 'olue cloth Bingl-^ lorea.sted Ti'ith ?iarine 

buttons, button-holes iworked with blu.-^ tviet , in tht^ herring- 
bone form. Standing coll-^rs, of Gc^^rlct cloth vrith tv^o 
button-holes on each side worked with blue t^'-ist, the collpr 
full Inced, .-^nd buttons on e^ch button-hole vorked in 

the herring-bone form, buttons plnced leng"th-wiBo on th(> 
skirts and sleeves, the upper part of the button-holrs in 
qll instances forming a. diamond, the skirts of the co-^t to 
reach as lo^"^ as the b(~:nd of the knee, pnd two herring-bone 
di,araonds placed a.t the points of the skirts. 

First Lieut ena.nts when in undress sha.ll '"ear one jiold 
epaulet on their right shoLilder. 

Second Lieutenants vhen in undress to wear one gold epau- 
let on the left shoulder, 

A First Lieutenant in the sta,fi when in undress f^hall 
ipear a gold epaulet on the right shoulder, and a. counter- 
stra.p on the left. 

A Second Lieutenant in the staff when in undress shpll 
wear a gold epaulet on the left shoulder, and a counterstr^p 
on the right. A sash with a. black lea.ther waist belt, -i^'ith 
yellow mountings, blue pantaloons in'vinter, ivhite in summer, 
and a brass scabbard sword must be - orn by all officers when 
on duty in undress. 

Officers D:rades as respects buttons shall be a,s follows 
Viz. 

The Lieutenant Colonel Commandant shall v^eaT on the 
breast of the undress coat, ten Marine buttons, on the cuffs, 
and skirts, four. 

The Capta.ins shall wear on the brea.st of the undress coa.t 
nine Ma.rine buttons, on the cufj^s, and skirts, four. 

The 1st & 2d Lieutena.nts shall vrea,r on the breast of the 
undress coat, nine Marine buttons, on the cuffs, and skirts, 
three. No chancre win take place in the full and undress 
of the Lieutenant Colonel Comraa.ndant and Ga.ptains, a.s respects 
the epaulet. 

This Order r;a,G revoked on August 25, 1821. (Orders of 
Parke 3-. "^^owle. Adjutant and Inspector, 3 \uTust 1321, en- 
closed in letter Henderson to Secretarv of the Nav;^/, 14 Octobe' 
1831, Marine Corps Letter Book, June-December, 1831, Navy 
\r chives) 



August 25 , 1821 (Officers): The order of the 3d \U'C[ust 
Inst; prescribing the Undress Uniform Coat to be worn by the 
Officers of the U.S. Mar:'.ne Corps from and after th(^ 1st day 
of Janua.ry 1822 is hereby'- revoked, and the above order [ji.a.ted _ 
■\ugust 25, 1821 to go into effect Janua.ry 1, 1823 that folloFe' 
signed by the Honblc, Secretary of the Naw will be substitute"! 



-80- 



Uniforms -81- American Marines 



in lieu thereof. (Order of Pa.rke CJ. HoT/le, Adjutant <?nd 
Inspector, 25 August 1821, Marine Corr)F Orders, Marine Corps 
Archives; copy enclosed in letter of Henderson to Secretary 
of the Na.Ap^ , 14 October 1831, Marine Corr)S Letter Book, Navy 
Archives) 

Printed Uniform Order 
(To go in effect Januarv 1, 1822) 

Aue^ust 25 , 1821 (Officers): From and after the 1st. 
day of January 1822, thr followirp- shall bo the undress 
uniform coat etc. for the officers of the United Sta.tee 
Marine Corps: viz. 

Navy blur cloth coat singlf^ breastrd, v^lth 
Marino buttons, button-holes rorkcd vi.th blue t^-'ist in thr 
herrine-bone form. Standin<^ colle.r of scarli^t cloth "-'Ith 
two buttonholes on ca.oh side, worked -nd th bluo twist; thr col- 
la,r full laced, cuffs and skirts turnefi up ir-ith blur cloth, 
and buttons on each buttonhole worked in the h-rrin?^- 

bone form; buttons placed lengthwise on the skirts an'~'' slof-^vcs 
the upoer part of the buttonholes in all instances forming 
a diamond; the skirts of the coa,t to reach as low as the 
bend of the kneo, and two a:old lace diamonds pla.ced on the 
points of the skirts, 

First Lieutenants when in undress shall I'^ear one a'old 
epaulet on the right shoulder. 

Second Lieutenants i:''hen in undress to wear one >?olc' 
epaulet on the left shoulder. 

A first Lieutenant in the sta.ff , when in unciress, shall 
wear a. gold epaulet on the riczht shoulder, ancl counter- 
strap on the left, embroidered with gold on blue ground, 

A second Lieutenant in the sta.ff, ^hen in undress, 
shall wear a gold epa.ulet on the left shoulder, a.nd a count er- 
stra.D on the right, embroidered ^l th gold on blue 'ground, 

\ scarlet sash, a. bla.ck leather waist belt, ■■■ ith yellow 
mountings, and a bra.ss scabbard s^^ord , with blue pantaloons 
in winter and 't'-hite in summer must be i^rorn bv all officers 
li'^hen on duty in undress. 

Officers grades, as respects buttons, 
shall be as follows, viz. 

The Lieutenant Colonel Commandant shall r'oar on the 
breast of the undress coa,t , ten !Ia.rine buttons, on the 
cuffs a,nd skirts four. 

■^he Cantalns shall v'ca.r on the breast of the undress 
coat, nine Marine buttons, on the cuffs and skirts four. 

The first and second Lieutenants shall wear on the 
breast of the undress coat, nine Ifa.rine buttons, on the cuffs 
and skirts three. 

-ai~ 



Uniforms -82- Vnerican Marines 



Fo change vail take iTlace in the full snd imdresB of 
the Lieutenant Colonel Commandant and C'^'-otains, as respects 
the epaulet, 

(printed Order si2;ned bv Secretary of the Navy Snith ThomD- 
son, Officers of the Idarine Cor-ns Letter Book, Vol, II, p« 
29, Navy Irchives; co-py in Marine Corps Orders, 25 VJ'n:ust 
1821, Marine Cor^os .\rchives; cor)y dated 25 Au^rust 1821 en- 
closed also in a. letter of Henderson to Secretarv of the 
Na.yj'- Levi Woodbury, 14 October 1831, Marine CorT^e Letter 
Book Navy \rc hives) 



Sent ember 25, 1821 (Officers): "In testimony of resnect 
to the Memory of~^irst3 Lieutenant Henry Olcott, of the Corps, 
who died at Norfolk, Vir^^inia, on the 17th Inst, it is hrre- 
by ordered, tha.t Cra.pe be T^^orn on the left arm, a.nd hilt of 
the Swcrd for one month, from the re-ceipt of this order," 
(Order of Parke Gr, Ho^'le , Marine Corps Orders, 25 3eT:)t ember 
1821, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 18 , 1321 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The 
TroOTOB untill further orders ^ill aionear r'hen. on dutv in 
uniform agreably to the winter establishmr-nt . " (Order of 
Hendereon, Marine Corps Orders, 18 October 1821, Marine Corns 
Archives) 

November _3, 1821 (Officers) : "In testimiony of respect 
to the Memory of {jirsiTj Lieutenant Charles Lord, of the CorDS, 
who died (at Norfolk, Virginia) on the 30th Ultimo, it is 
hereby ordered, tha.t OraDe be v-orn on the left arm, and hilt 
of the S^ord for one month, from the receipt of this order." 
(Order of Parke Ir. Ho^'^le , I/Ia.rine Corns Orders, 3 Novpmber 
1821, Marine Corns Archives; The above date of Lord's death 
is to be accepted over that of October 30, 1827 set forth in 
the Historv of the United States Marine Corns b}'- Major Richard 
S. Collum, nr?ge 440; Thomas H, S. Ha.mersly's l^eneral Register 
of the Navv and Marino Corns, pa?,'e 884 crives the correct date 
of October' 30, 1821) 

June 23, 1822 (Officers and Enlisted Men): ''The "roons 
will, hereafter"^ Tiintill further orders) apnear in uniform, 
agreeably to the Summer TTstablishment . " (Order of Henderson, 
Marine Corns Orders, 33 June 1822, Marine Corns Archives) 

O ctober 14, 1822 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The 
Troons after the 19th Inst, (until further orders) ^'m 

-82- 



Uniforms -83- Araeri can Ma.rines 



e.pioear when on duty, in unifor^-i agreea,^ly to the Winter 
Establishment." (Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 
14 October 1883, Marine Corps Archives) 

Crape •'"^orn for Chaplain and 
Marine Officer at same time 

February 38 , 1833 (Officers): "In testimony of respect 
to the memory of the Rev. Doctr. Andrew Hunter [^Chaplain, 
U.S. Navy, who died February 34, 1823], the Officers, ^ill 
wear Crape on the left a.rm & hilt of the Sword for one mionth 
from this date." (Order of Henderson, Ma.rine Corps Orders, 
28 Februa.ry 1833, Marine Corps Archives) 

February 38 , 1835 (Officers) ; "In testimony of respect 
to the Memiory of [First] Lieutenant Robt. M. Desha, of the 
Corps, the Officers will wear Cra.pe on the left arm, & hilt 
of the Sword, for one month. Officers on distant Stations 
will execute this order, as to time, from the receipt of the 
same." (Order of Henderson. Marine Corps Orders, 28 Februa.ry 
1823, Marine Corps Archives) 

May 20, 1823 (officers and Enlisted Men): "The troops 
at Head Qua.rters, will a.fter the 24th Inst, when on duty, 
appea.r in uniform agreeably to the Summ<-r Establishmicnt . " 
(Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 20 May 1823, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

July 2_, 1833 (Officers): "As a tribute of resr)ect for 
the Memory of their deceased brother Officer, Ca.pt ain Alfred 
Grayson, and of the sincere grief they fet'l for his early 
and lamented death, the Officers, of the Marine Carps a,re 
directed to wea.r Crape on the left arm and on the Sv^ord Hilt 
for one month. This order will be carried into execution, 
on the different sta.tions, from the time of its receipt." 
(Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 2 Jul^ 1823, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

O ctober 2, 1823 (Officers): "In testimony of respect 
to the memory of LSecond] Lieutenant O-eorge Cooper , of the 
Corps, who died at Boston, the 25th Ultimo, the Officers of 
the Ma.rine Corps, are directed to wea.r Cra.pe on the left arm, 
and on the Sword hilt for one month. This order will be 
ca.rricd into execution, on the different stations, from the 
time c:f its rL-^Cf^ipt . " (Order of Henderson, Marine Corps 
Orders, 2 October 1823, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 21, 1823 (Officers a.nd Enliisted Ifen) : ""he 
Troops after the 25th Inst, (until further orders) will 

-83- 



UniforraB -84- American Ilarincs 



appear vrhcn on duty, in uniform agreeably to the iVinter 
KstabliGhmont. " (Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 
21 October 1823, Marine Corps Archives) 

November 14 , 1835 (Officers): "In testimony of respect 
to the Memory of fSecondj Lioutr-nant Stephen M. Rogers of 
the Corps, who died at Thompsons Island on the 3 7th S(^pt ember 
1823, tho Officers of the Marine Corps, pre directed to wrpr 
Grape on the left .\rm, and on the Sword hilt , for one Month, 
This ordrr will bo carried into execution on the different 
Stations, from the time of its rt^ceipt." (Order of H^-ndcr- 
Bon, Marine Corps Orders, 14 November 1823, Marine Corns 
Archives; .'^lajor Richa.rd S. Oollum's Historv of the Unitr-d 
States Marine Corps, pa'^e 444 and T.K.S. Hajnersly^ C-enrral 
Register of the United States Navy and Marine Corps, nage 
891 set forth his name incorrectly as "3. W, Rogers.") 

Ni"w L'^a.ther Caps 

Novembe r 37, 1823 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Ordered 
that from & after the 1st dav of January 1834 the Non-Com.- 
raissioned Officers, Musicians and Privates of the Corps, when 
in Full Uniform, wt ar the New Leather Caps & trimmin-zs, such 
as may be furni8h(^d by the Qr. Master of the Corps, The 
Subaltern Officers of the Corps when in Full Dress win vear 
Caps sim.ila.r to those worn by the men, with the exception 
of the Scales, Eagle & Band which shall be of gold." (Order 
of Henderson, 27 November 1823, Marine Corps Orders ,Mnr me 
Corps Archives; Orders of Henderson, 3 7 November 1833, 
enclosed in letter Henderson to Secreta,rv of the Na-^r' , 12 
October 1851) 

White Waist Belts 

M^iZ 21, 1834 (Enlisted Men): "Ordered that from, and 
after the receipt of this order all Non-Commission ed Officers 
Mueic and Privates of the U.S. Marine Corps, when in Full 
Uniform, will wear white waist belts, such a,s ma,v be furnish- 
ed by the Quarter Master of the Corps." (Order sighed by 
Parke ^1. Howie. '/larine Corps Orders, 39 May 1834, 'iarine 
Corps Archives) 

October 33 , 1834 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Th3 
Troops at Hea.d Quarters will appea.r in future, when on duty, 
in uniform, a.greeablv to the Winter Establishment." (Order 
of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 33 October 1824, J-Iarine 
Corps Archives) 



-84- 



Uniform.-s -85- America.n Ilarinee 



" Msuneluke Hilt " SFord 
(Suspended, Deceraber 22, 1825 v^hich order 
in turn was suspender on January 30, 1826 
a.nd order of April 20, 1825 directed to 
take effect May 1, 1826 or sooner if 
Tpra.c tic able. See also Order of May 3, 1825) 

April 26, 1835 (Officers): "T';.at the Captains, Field 
& Staff Officers of the U.S. Marine Corps shall from & 
after the 31st of Deer., 1825, Fhen in Full Dress Uniform 
wea.r a Cocked Hat (not a, chapeaux de lora^s) twenty inches 
in length, with a very little curve, height in rea.r eleven 
inches, heis-ht in front nine inches, loop of gold Ipcg one 
inch & three quarters in width [[breadthr] over a cocka.de of 
rich block ribband four inches in width; tassels of gold -5: 
red bullion, fa.stened inside the corner of the hat, and not 
to hang below the corner. Hat not bound. All Officers v^hen 
on dutv either in full or Undress Uniform, shall wear a 
plain brass scabbard s^^-ord or sabre, with a Mameluke Hilt 
of Tnite Ivory & a gold tassel; extreme length of s^crd, 
three feet one inch & a ha,lf curve of bla.de half an inch 
only , to serve a.s cut or thrust; the hilt in length (v-hich 
is included in the extreme length of the s^'rord) four inches 
& three quarters, vridth of the scabbard, one inch & seven 
eights, width of bla,de one inch." (Order of Henderson, 
MaTine Corps Orders, April 26, 1825, Marine Corps Archives; 
Enclosed in letter Henderson to Secretary of the Na.-^y . 12 
October 1831, Marline Corps Letter Book, Navy Archives) 

Mm. 10, 1825 (Enlisted Men); "That in future, the 
folloT^'ing amount of clothing (and no more) vail be issued 
to ea,ch Marine, for, and ciuring the period of his enlist- 
ment. Viz. 5 Uniform Coats with wings, 10 Pairs Uniform 
Woollen overalls, 10 Pairs Uniform Linen overalls, 30 Shirts, 
2 Stocks, 20 Pairs Shoes, 3 Blankets, 2 Knapsacks, 10 Pairs 
Socks, 4 Pairs Waiters, 5 Fatigue Jackets, 5 Fati-jue Overalls 
1 Fatigue Cap, 1 Uniform Ga.p, plate, & Seniles, 2 Cockaf^es 
& Buttons, 5 Pompons, 5 Tassels, ^reat Coats will he allowed 
as follows, annually. For the luard of a 74, 6, For the 
Gruard of a Frigate, 4. For the "Juard of a Sloop, 3, For 
the CJuard of a Schooner, 2, For the different Stations, 
according to the number of men mounting C-uard, " (Order 
siprned by Hen-b-rson, Marine Corps Orders, 10 May 1825, 
Marine Corps A.r chives) 

May 14, 1835 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "That from 
and after the 31st Inst, the Troops at Head Qua.rters ^^111 
appear in uniform a>ireeablv to the Summer Establishm'^^nt , " 

-85- 



Uniforms -86- American Marines 



(Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 14 May 1835, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

September 3, 1825 (Officers): "In testimony of respect 
to the Memory of [FirstJ Lieutenant Henry W. Gardner of the 
Corps vfho died in "the Mediterranean on the 26th of April, 
1825, the Officers of the Marine Corps are directed, to v^ear 
Crape on the left arm and on the Si-^ord Hilt for one month. 
This order i-^ill be carried into execution at the different 
sta.tions from the time of its receipt." (Order of Henderson, 
Ma/rine Corps Orders, 3 September 1825, Marine Corps Archives) 

October 18 , 1825 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The "roope 
at Head Quarters ^^-all from and after the 22nd Instant, when 
on duty, appea.r in uniform agreeably to the Mnter Estab- 
lishment." (Order of Henderson, Ma.rine Corps Orders, 18 
October 1825, Marine Corps Archives) 

November 29 , 1825 (Officers): "Captain Thos. McDonou^h 
died on the 10th of this month, off the Capes of the Dela^a.re, 
on his return from active service in the Mediterranea.n, * * * 
You will therefore, on the da,v a.fter receiving: this order 
cause the flag to be hoisted a,t half mast, and thirteen 
minute guns to be fired at 12 o'clock; and vou will direct 
the officers under your command to wea.r crape on the left 
arm for thirty days," (Circular of Secretary of the IJavy 
Sarauel L. Southard to Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 29 
November 1825, Marine Corps Archives) 



" Mameluke Hilt " Sword 
( See Orders of Ja.nuary 30, and May 3, 1825) 

December 22 , 1825 (Officers): "The order of the 26th 
April last in rela.tion to the Cocked Hat and S^ord ordered 
to be rorn from and a.fter the 31st Inst, is suspended until 
further Orders," (Ordor siTned by Parke C. Hovle , Marine 
Corps Orders, 23 December 1825, Marine Corps Archives; 
enclosed in letter Henderson to Secretary of the Na-^^y, 12 
October 1831, Marine Corps Letters Book, NaT/ Archives) 

Full Dr e s s Unix or m, 
( Follow vdth caution) 
1825 (officers): '"he follov/ing is the Full Dress 
Uniform of the Officers of the United States I'larine Corps, 
completed and revised from the different orders on the sub- 
ject by the Adjutant & Inspector of the Corps in 1825, 

-86- 



Uniforras -87- American Marines 



Lieut: Colonel; ITavy blue coat, double breasted, buttoned 
a.oross the breast with tv-^o rows of buttons nine on each side 
(such 8S the Honorable Secret.-^.ry of the Navy haB prescribed 
for the Officers of the Corps,) button holes laced and 
brought to a Doint in the centre thus n <). "the collar 
of scarlet cloth bround rou.nd ^''ith gold vs/ lace and 
hooked before with two buttons on each ^ side placed, 
thus » r^\ Cuffs of scarlet cloth, the up-per part form- 
ing '— — ~^K/ a half diamond, the points running to the 
wrist, four buttons on the Cuffs pla.ced in a straight line 
on the upper part of the fore a.rra, skirts turned up ^^'ith 
scarlet cloth, four buttons on the skirts placed lengthwise, 
two foul anchors worked with gold threa.d on each skirt vhere 
the scarlet cloth meets. The skirts and inner lappels of the 
coa.t lined with scarlet cloth and the three upper button 
holes of the lappels laced; this, however, not to be seen 
v/hen en duty in v^^inter. The cuffs and skirts to be laced 
thus ayp coming to a point at the 'outton, k white vest 
and NX black lea.ther stock, 

Chapeau de bra.s with a red plume, a black leather cockade 
thus described J^ with a gold lace loop and. a Navy button 
at the lower {^^^ side of the Cockade, the Chapeau de 
bras to be worn ^^^ over the ri'dit eye, with gold ta.ssels 
hanging from each corner. 

In winter blue cloth or Casimere cossa.c pantaloons over 
boots, in Summer they t-hi he white and plain, either of 
cotton or linen worn as above. 

iT'hite cross belt with a gilt breast plate, sca.rlct 
sash made of silk, worn round the waist over the Coat pn6 
belt, yellow mounted Sa.bre with gilt scabbard a.nd gold s^^ord 
knot, yellow buckskin gloves, and gold or gilt spurs, t'"o 
gold epp^'ulctts, one on each shoulder. 

The uniform of the Caaitalns of the Corps the sane as 
that of the Lieut: Colonel, with the exception of the epaulett 
Captains will vrea.r one gold eppaulett on the right shoulder 
and p\ gold strap on the left. 

The Lieutenants to wear blue cloth Co^'^tees, sin2;le brea.st- 
ed with one row of Ma.rinc buttons, (eight in number) on the 
breast similar to those worn b^?- thr Li ut. Colonial: button 



holes gold laced and 'brought to a point thus ^//^ form- 
ing ^, diamond at the upper ends, buttonholes to ^ be 
worked as fr^.r as the diamonds, three buttons on the cuffs 
■^nd. skirts l^.ced a.nd worked p,s above, the "Ixittons on the cuffs 
to be pla,ced in a straight line on the upper part of the fore 
arm, the diamond placed upwards, the buttons on the sk.irte 
to be placed in a direct line lengthwise the skirts, laced 
and worked as the cuffs and breast, the collar of scarlet 
cloth, two buttons on each side laced thus c=r=r.x> ^nd 

-87- 



Uniforms -88- American I.^arinrs 



bound round vith gold Ip.ce, the cuffs of scr^rlet cloth, the 
UTDpa.rt forming r, hr?lf diamond, the point running to the 
1^'rist. The skirt e turned up v^ith sc'-irlet cloth, ?nd a 
diamond, formed ^^Ith golcl Ince, on blue cloth, to be put on 
the skirts rhcre the scarlet cloth mer:tp. The skirts Ipccd 
and T^'orked sim.ilar to the cuffs. 

The pantaloons, boots, stock, cross-belt, s^sh, ST'ord , 
sword-knot, scabbard, and glc/'es, the s^me kind ps those 
ordered to be worn bv the Lieut: Colonel ?ind C^Titalns. 
One gold wing on ea.ch shoulder. 

Caps to be of leather; bell crown; gilt scales; yelloiv 
eagle, in front; black leather cockade, one ^nd a h^lf inch 
in diameter, h^^.vin^sc a, sma.ll yellow button in the centre, 
with an e^.gle im.pressed on it. Red pompons i^'ith q ^old 
cord nnd tassels. 

The rank between first and second Lieuten-^^nts , to be 
designr^ted ^.s follows, First Lieutenants, to we-^r on each 
a.rra, above the olbox"', one chcA/Eron, points running in the 
sam.e direction as the angles on the cuffs, and of the srime 
kind of la.ce; second Lieuten'-^nts , to v^car one cheveron on 
the right a„rra a,s described above, A First Lieutenant in 
the 3t?^,ff , to wear two cheverons on c^^ch arm; a. Second Lieu- 
tenant in the St^ff, to wear two cheverons on the right prra, 
and O'T on the left arm. 

This 1825 compilation should be follor^ed with caution. 
(The above information is written in the ba.ck of Marine 
Corps Orders, 1822-1851, Marine Corps Arcnives) 



January 30 , 1826 (Officers) : "That the order of the 
26 April 1825, in relation to the Cocked hat and Sword 
directed to be worn by the Officers of the Corps from and 
after the 31st Decem.ber last, (the same ha.ving been sus- 
pended by order of the 22d ultimo) be complied with on the 
1st May next, or sooner if practicable. It is further 
ordered that from a.nd a.fter the 30th April next, or sooner 
if practicable, the officers of the Corps weax sword belts 
and plates, such a,s are prescribed for the Artillery officers 
in Article 65, No, 856 m the General Rules and Ren'ula tions 
for the Array of the United Sta.tes, revised bv Ma.j or-^CJeneral 
Scott." (order of ''^enderson. Marine Corps Orders, 30 Januaxy 
1826, Marine Corns Archives) 

Officers ' Swords 

January 24 , 1 825 (Officers): "Hand the accompanying 
letter to Mr. Young who has just infoCTned me of the arrival 

-88- 



Uniforms -89- American Ma.rines 



of the swords, I "hink a profit of five cioll^^rs on e3ch bwotc'. 
is as much as he ought to expect." (Henderson to Brevet 
Lieutenant-Oolonel Richa.rd Smith at Neiv York, 24 JanuEiry 1826, 
Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

February 15, 1826 (Officers): "The Swords ordercc' for 
the Marine Corps, and Fhich are directed to "oe Forn after the 
first of May, have arrived at New York. * * ♦ Their price 
is forty-five dollnrs, Whenever you or any of :i''our Officers 
Rond to me an order on the Pay Master for that sun, I t-III 
direct the s^^^^ords to ''oe delivered a.s you or they ma,y desire. 
These swords arc high but I presume are of the very "best 
materials. " (Henderson to ^revet Lieutenant- Colonel Richard 
Smith a.t New "^ork, 13 Feb, 1826, Marine GoriDS Archives) 

March 4, 1826 (Officers): "Ca.iDt . Kuhn will send you 
[^1350 to pay for the swords. If those for Hea.d Quarters had 
not been alrea.dv ,-:ihippcd I should not have consented to 'oaj'" 
more than fiv^"^ dollars adva.nce." (Henrierson to Pre^nt Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Richard Smith at New York, 4 March 1826, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

March 7 , 1825 (Officers): "I have directeci five swords 
to be held by Colo, Smith subject to vour order. One for 
yourself, one for Lt. 3=i.rton, one for Lt. McCawley, one for 
Lt. Bloodgood * * * pjid one for Lt, H?5,ll." (Henderson to 
Major Samuel Miller at Philadelphia, 7 March 1826, Marine 
Corps Archives) 

April 5, 1823 (Officers): "Lt. Col. Smith will send, 
by a.ny conveyance you may think most safe, three swords to 
your post. One for yourself, one for Lt. Marston, and one 
for Lt. Ed son. He will aw:' it your direction a.s to the node 
of conveyance." (Henderson to Major Robert D. Vv'ainwri-^^ht 
at Boston, 5 April, 1826, Marine Corps Letter Book, p. 198, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

April 5, 1826 (Officers): "Lt. Col©. Smith will send 
three swords to your Post in any way vou wish. One for 
yourself, one for Lieut, Linton, anci one for Lt, C-r3rraes, 
Colo. Smith will await your direction as to the mode of 
conveyance for the swords." (Henderson to Major William 
\nderson at Norfol]:, 5 Auril 1823, Marine Corr^s Archives) 

May 3, 1826 (Officers): "That, that part of the order 
of the 26 April 1825 (as well also as orders of the 30 
Janua.ry 1826) directing the Staff of the Corps to wear 
Cocked-hats when in full dress, is hereby revoked so far as 

-89- 



Uniforms -90- American Hp.rines 



relates to Lieutenants in tlie Staff." (Order of Henderson, 
Marine Corpe Orders, 3 May 1826, Ma.rine Corps Archives) 

Crape worn for 
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson 

July 7, 1836 (Officers): "The President of the United 
States, with the deepest solicitude and sympa.thy, directs 
that the dea.th of Thomas Jefferson be announced to the 
Navy, and the Marine Corps; * * * Ke died at Monticello 
about one o'clock on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
Declaration of our Na.tional Independence, * * * by the 
officers of the Navy a^nd Ma.rine Corps wearing Crape on 
the left arm for six months.'^ (General Order of Secrota.ry 
of the Na.^/y Samuel L. Southard, 7 July 182 6, Marine Corps 
Orders, Marine Corps Archives); "This Order was rccd, on 
the 11th and copies forward on the 12th July 1826 to 
ea.ch Marine Post, and to the Corarag Marine Officer in the 
Medit : and West India Squa.drons. " (Order of Henderson, 
Marine Corps Orders, 11 July 1826, Marine Corps Archives) 

July 10, 1826 (Officers): "It has become the painful 
duty of the Depa.rtment , to announce to the Navy and Marine 
Corps, the death of another venerated Patriarch of the 
Revolution, Signer of the Decla.ra.tion of Independence, and 
former President of the United States, whose talents, 
virtues, services and public honors demand and expression of 
nationa„l respect and national sorrow, John Adams died at 
Quincy, about 6 o'clock, on the 4th day of the present 
m.onth, the fiftieth anniversary of our nat iona.l Independence 
The sam.e funeral honors x'^^ill be paid to him, ^^'hich were 
directed to be paid to Thomas Jefferson bv the C-eneral 
Order of the 7th instant," (General Order of Secretary of 
the Na.vy Samuel L. Southard, 10 July 1826, I.la.rine Corps 
Orders, Marine Corps Archives); "This order was reed, on 
the 11th, and copies forwa,r<i on the 12 July 1826 to each 
Marine Post, and to the Coramg. Marine Officer in the Medit, 
& West Indif^, Squadrons." (Order of Henderson, Ma.rine Corps 
Orders, 11 July 1825, Marine Corps Archives) 



i; 



Survev of Clothine: 



January 18 , 1837 (Enlisted Men): "A board of Survev, 
composed of Lieut, Richard T. Auchrautv, Lieut. Geo. W. 
Walker & Lieut. Alvin Edson will be held on the 23d da.v of 
Ja.ny. 1827, at the Na.vy Yard, Brooklyn, New York, to examine 
the clothing furnished to the Marines during the last six 
months by Edward Ilaccomber , and to report up on its fitness 

-90- 



Uniforms -91- American Ilarinos 



for service. The Board i-all also survev 8,ncl ret)ort upon any 
other proper t:-- of the Iferine Corps at that Station ^'hich 
may be submit ted to their inspection by the cor.rraanding Officei 
(Order of Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 18 Ja-nuajy 18?7, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

October 17 , 1837 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "Woolen 
unifcrm overalls vriil "be issued to rill nen reioorted for 
duty, and Uniform on the Winter Establishr.ipnt commmces 
on the morning of the 18th inst. ^■n(^. continue until further 
orders." (Order of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Millrr 
g,t Philadel-ohia. , Order Book of Philadelphia Barracks, '■■larine 
Corps Archives) 

October 36 , 1837 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The 
Troops in future will appear in uniform agreeably to the 
Winter Establishment, until further Orders." (Order of 
Henderson, Marine Corps Orders, 33 October 1837, Marine 
Corps Archives) 



February 3 , 1838 (Officers and Enlisted Men): ^^'::\'ic 
large amount of clothing sent to the Saup.dron in the Mediter- 
ranean, requires that an officer should be directed to at- 
tend to its distribution and issue, and that he should be 
held account a.ble to the U.S. for the performance of this 
duty." (Henderson to Secretary of the Navy Snjiiuel L. Southa.rd 
3 February 1828, Marine Corps Letter Book, Marine Corps Arch- 
ives) 

February 11 , 1838 (Officr-rs and Enlisted Men): "I have 
requested the aBsietant qr. master, Lt. Edson, to furnish 
the guard of the Shark i^ith a moderate supplv of clothing 
euitpble for the West India. Station." (Brevet Lieuten^nt- 
Golonol John M. Gamble, at 1-Iei^ York Barracks to Henderson, 
11 February 1838, Ifarine Corps Archives) 

April 5, 1833 (Officers): "Your letter of the 3d h-^.s 
been received. C.^pt^in ""aggs is entitled to the uniform 
of a Captain. It is tho universal custom of the Military 
service, to assume the dress of the Brevet rank," (Henderson 
to Samuel Miller n.t Philadelphia, 5 April 1838, Mprinc Corps 
Archives) 

April 8, 1838 (Officers): "I ^.m fully a.^'^re that a 
Brevet Captain is entitled to the uniform of his grade. But 
I have no directions for Captains Uniform, at the poet and 
Oapt, T"'^'iggs is under the necessity of having a ne^*^ coat 
made Miich he rishes to have done correctl-"-. " (Samuel 

-91- 



Uniforms -92- American liarines 



Miller at Philadelphia to Render con, 8 April 1838, Marine 
CorpB Archives) 

June 14, 1838 (Unlisted Men): "I enclose to you a 
system of regulations for the issue and accountalDility of 
the Clothing, of the laarine Corns, of ^^'hich I have to re- 
quest vour a.Dorovsl. As there is a reduction of several 
articles of clothing nov? issued to the Soldiers, irhich ^-ill 
sa.ve expense to the 'lovernnent B.ncl not detract from the 
coTifort of the men, your ep-oroval becomes necessarv^ a.s no 
such changes ca.n ta.ke -olace •'"ithout the sa/nction of the 
President." (Henderson to Secretarv of the Naw Sa,rauel Ii. 
Southa.rd, 14 June 1838, Marine Corps \rchives; a printed 
copv of this "Svstem of Acoounta.bility for Clothing, Arms, 
and \ccoutreraent s" is filed Tiththe original letter in 
Marine Officers' Letter Book, 1838, I , 38 , Navy Archives) 

July 9 , 1833 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "I transmit 
to the Dent., for the approval of the President, a, paper 
prescribins the Uniform for every grade in the Corps of 
Marines. As exact a uniformity in dross as practicable, 
is an object very much to be desired in every military Corps. 
It is to accomplish this that the accompanying paper is sub- 
mitted tG the Dept. , rrith a request that the sanction of the 
President may be given to it, preliminar^r to its being en- 
forced throughout the Corps." (Henderson to Secretary of the 
Havy Samuel L. Southa.rd, 9 July 1828, I'la.rine Corps Archives; 
Marine Officers' Letter Book, l\[a.vy Archives) 

.July 9, 1338 (Officers and Unlisted Men): On the back 
of the above letter of Henderson to Southard, 9 July 1833 is 
written: "The Inclosurc sent to the President, 35 July." 
\lso TP/ritten on the ba.ck, in led pencil: " \ns reed, before 
judging of the propriety of th(^ order the prest. ■''ill desire 
to knot'- precisely V'b_b the dress nor & the auth^'" - undress 
■--hiGh it is T^'orn - I rcma.rk also that there is no dress pre- 
scribed for the Brevet Off. of the Corps," (Marine Officers' 
Letter Book, p, 43, rJqvy Archives) 



July 31, 1338 (Officers and Enlisted !^rn): "I have 
received the papf^r transmitted ^'ith vour letter of the 9th 
inst, prescribing the Uniform for the Marine Corps. ""^rforn 
judging of the propriety of tht^ order, the President '-dll 
desire to kno^- precisely, ■'"'hat the dress nor' is, and the 
a.uthority under vhich it is i^orn, I remark also that there 
is no dress prescribed for the Brevet Officers of the Corps, 
(Secrrta.rv of the Na^^v S^m.url L. Southard to Henderson, 31 
July 1838, Marine Corps \rchives) 

-92- 



Uniiorras -93- American MarincG 



July 35 , 1838 (Officers f^nd Enlisted Men): "I hpve 
rec"^- your letter of the 31st Inst, and tra.nsrnit to the 
Dept. the various orders in rela.tion to the uniforn of the 
CorpR. The different orders since the 33d l/Iarch 1831 have 
been condensed in the paper submitted for the approbation 
of the President. No chanQ;e has been made except in the 
Uniform Coats of the Captains i-'hich, in all services, a.ro 
simila.r to those ox the other company officers, "heir 
uniiorras were a.ssimilated to those of the Field officers, 
in consequence of some of the younrrer Captains having been 
Brevetted,, and. conseqEntly entitled to the uniform of the 
grade to vhich they T'ere so brevetted. No such circumstance 
noi'f exists, and it is thought risrht to go back to the old 
principle that all the company officers should rear the 
same uniform, and not a.s is no'-' the case, the Captains 
Fith long coats and the Lieuts. irrith short ones. This i^'ith 
the change of Hat, from the one prescribed in the order of 
the 3Sth April 1835 and rhich has been found inconvenient 
from, its size & shape, to the Chapeau bras, is the only cha.ngc 
noF submitted for the sanction of the 'C-ovt , It is more to 
condense in one ord.er all that ha.ve been issued on the sub- 
ject, and to give tha.t order the sanction of the President 
that this paper has been submitted, than to create -^ny ma.ter- 
ial change. It was not deemed, necessary to mention the 
uniform of the Brevet officers, as thev are entitled to 
Ti^ea.r that of the grade to I'liich they are brevetted. All the 
orders on this subject have been issued ^-^ith the sanction of 
the G-overnment , " (Henderson to Secretary of the Na'^A'" Samuel 
L. Southard, 33 July 1838, Marine Officers' Letter Book, 
p, 51, Na^/3'" Irchives; I,1arine Corps iirchives) 

July 35, 1838 (Officers and Enlisted Men): On ba,ck of 
above letter is written: "Inclosure sent to the Pres'^," 
(Marine Officers' Letter Book, p. 51, Nav:-.^ Archives) 

August 15 , 1888 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "The 
printed. Rules hereto annexed 'Regulating the Accountability 
for Clothing, vrms and Accoutrements Issued to the Marine 
Coros' having been approved of by the President of the United 
States, a strict compliance xvith them is enjoined on all 
Officers Coram-^^nding Deta,chments or luarvls. " (Order of Parke 
Gr. Howie, \d jut ant & Inspector, Marine Corps Orders, 15 
August 1838, Ma,rine Corps Archives) 

Officers wear Undress on ordinary duty 

September 33, 1838 (Officers): "Ordered that the 
Officers of the Corps wear the Undress Uniform of the Corps 

-93- 



Uniiorras -94- Ar.aeriCRn Marines 



■^rlicn on Ordinary duty in lieu of the present Full Dress. " 
(Order of Henderson, Merino Corps Orders, 23 September 1823, 
M'-u"inc Corr)S Arcliives) 

Septeraber 22 , 1828 (Officers): "An order issued this day 
will enable Oapt, Twir:gs to 9:0 on duty in the Undress Uniform. 
An order fixing the Uniform is nov^ before the Secretary of 
the Navy." (Hend.er8on to Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel 
Miller p.t Philadelphia, 22 September 1828, Marine Corps 
Archives) 

O ctober 15 , 1828 (Officers and Enlisted Men): "^'Joolen 
Uniform. Overalls Kill be issued to all men reported for 
duty. Ind Uniiormi on the "^Tfinter Establishment, commence, 
on the morning of the 16th Instant, and continue until fur- 
ther orders." (Order of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Sam.uel 
Miller at Philadelphia, Order Book of Philadelphia B^rrachs, 
Marine Corps Archives) 

Februa.ry 25 , 1829 (Officers): "Is a m.ark of res'oect 
to the meraoTy of Commo. Thom.as Tingey, late of the Na"'ry of 
the U, States, you will cause the Flags of the severq,l 
Stations under :/our Com.m.and, to be hoisted ha.lf m.ast on 
the day after the receipt of orders to this effect. The 
Officers of the Marine Corps "dll wear cra^pe on the left 
arm Sz on the hilts of their Sword for thirty days." (Sec- 
retary of the Navy Samuel L. Southard to Henderson, 23 
Februf^ry 1829, Marine Corps Archives) 

February 24 , 1829 (Officers): "The B,ccompanyin?; orr'f^r 
from the Navy Department tregarding Cor:modore Tingey~| vt±i± 
be complied with on its receipt by you," (Henderson to 
Robert D. '''ifalnwright (Boston), John M. Gamble (Nev^ York), 
Samuel I^iller (Philadelphia.), ^Villiajn Anderson (Norfolk), 
Samuel E. 'Yatson (Portsmouth, N.H. ), '"William H, Froem-^n 
(Navy Yard, ""'fa.shington ) , leorge F. Lindsay (Pensa.cola) , 
24 Februpiry 1829, Marine CorDS Archives) 

Unif orm for Courts-martial 

October 21, 1829 (Officers): "Until further it is 
hereby directed tha.t the Undress Uniform of the Corps m,ay 
be ■''forn on Courts Ifartial." (Order of Henderson, Marine 
Corps Orders, 31 October 1829, Marine Corps Archives) 

CONTINUED in PART TWO 
-94- 



Uniforns -95- Araerican Marines 



VERY BRIEF INDEX 

PART ONE, 

UNIFORMS of the AMERICAN MARINES 

(Complete Index in Part Two) 



Allowance, uniform 7,8,27,53,63,64,85 

Altering uniform 22,24,58 

Araerica.n Indians, 1 

Anchors-"Do av-ay with stars", have anchor on button.... 32 

Ancient American Marines. . o . . . » 1 

".\ngles of gold lace" on officer's arm ...64,66,70,77 

Artillery uniform. . . „ ,15,31,32 ,88 

Beaver Gaps 70 , 73 , 75 

Belts: 

Black leather belts. 42 

Bla.ck leathe r wai st belt s 77,80,81 

Buff belts. „ . .54 

Miite Cross belts 42,47,51,70,72,75,87 

Whit e wai st belt s « . 84 

Breast plate of gilt on white cross belts „.87 

Brevet officers ~ uniform of* ....^ 91,92,93 

British Marines' Uniforms See also English. .... ........ 52 

"British Regimenta.ls" See also English. r . . 56 

Buck Tail - ^on hat 30 

Ohapeau de br as 44 , 47 , 66 , 71 , 72 , 75 , 85 , 87 

Chevron - worn by of f icers, , 88 

Cloathing Returns. «.«,. :«... ,.24 

Coatees. ..=.. 17,26 ,35,37,40,47,64,67,69, 72 , 73, 75, 77 ,78 ,87 

Cockade, leather, ,..,..,. r ,«,. c . , See Lea.ther Cockades 

"Cockade of rich black ribband" - of f icei , 85 

Collum, Richa.rd S. , Major, U.S. Marine Corps .....52 

v^ O -L OnX a^-L Mar l ne Sene.ao.. ..!>«..». «coo9(»aeb9co..e.....o9-i-,'~> 

Commandant of Corps ~ Cold star for gra.de 71,77,78,79 

Continental or Regular I^iarines, . ...... ^ 1 

Count erst rap, gold. ....,..*. o.,..« 26,44,47, 73 , 77, 7U, 80, 81 

Court-Llaxtial duty- Uniforms for^. «...•.. o..<,.33,94 

Crape worn as mourning ba.dgCo .... .16,30,45,50,52 ,53 ,54, 58- 

59,52,63,79.82,83,84,86,90,94 

Device : 

Brass Eagle on ha.ts See Eagle , Hat 

Cockade as See Leather Cockade 

Eagles on drums 55,56 

Rattlesnake ,...,...., 2 

Diamonds, on Skirts of Officers' Coats 44,45,70,71,72 

75,76,77,80,81,88 

-95- 



Uhiforras -98- American I/i8,rineB 



"Die" 28,32 

Dress Uniform. 55,69 

Drums, Device of Ea.gle on... 4,,. •SB, 56 

Eagle: 

Belts ~ "Eagle in relief" on gilt pla^tes of belts.,. 75 

Brass Eagle ^on Men's Caps .............. .25,40,47, 73 

Buttons, ea,gle impressed on.,.,, 6,9,35,88 

Cockade ~ "Eagle substituted for a cockade" .27 

Drums - Eagle on drums, .....«..• .o.e«55,56 

Gold Eagle on Officers^ hats ,..72,73,75,88 

Hat, eagle on,.. 28,29,30,35,53,56,84 

"Yellow Eagle" on Officers' Ca.pSo .,•,.,.♦««. o ...». o <. 88 

English Clothing, Hats, Uniform ..,.4,35,36,37,52,56 

Epaulettes : 

Enlisted Men, ^ .......... o ..».....«....« .19,31,51 

Gold for Officers,. ...5,26,39,44,47,73,77,80,87 

U-I-IXCerSooeooeoe.eoe».».c«.».o..».e»»ee«J-t',^^,OS', i-i-j ( ^ 
OlJ.veroooeeoo«908oe«coo.«..c.eo.oo..».»*oe«ee»«6eocot'~^ 

Yellow Silk for TTon-Commissioned Of f icers. . 7,8 ,9 ,10,11 
iiirrors m unxxormc««.««..o<>««..«,c«doc.oe*«».o.,..*o.«oOio 
Expensive uniforms o ....<..,..*..<,..,, c * ^ o -■. => o o 65 

"Fan front" of Beaver Ga.DSo « « » » . . o . . . c o . » c . c « « o , , 73 ,75 , 76 
Fatigue Dress and Suit, o «> <> . c « <> . . e . . . » . « e. o o e ec o2 7,31,45,53 

r ea Ij nL'rSo»o»e».oeo«.»»»*o»«eeooo*ee«''»«t>&Cj,£j<v,OU,^'0,OXj Dio 

riej-Q. QUu^/^ — Lin II Orm XOrs.ac>ooacoa.a«e«.oeoeeee>«eo«ocDO 

r le J- CI 01 XXCerSe.e.«.9..«.»«3oooC»cu«*Q«.«ecoci...e i*^, i3,i-0 

Flour for hair powder. . Sec also Hair Powder; Queues. 17, 24 

34,37,44 
Flour, sour - for hair powder. ,. c ... ^ .....<..,.. «».»o c ., 37 

r OUX anCnOr oceaoj>.pooe.e6,.oeoaeGe.«.9C<«eeoe.ooc.c3joi><:<-^ 
r OUX an C nor DUT> Tons n.«eace>es&obr..c,.«*Lr,,«*«**Oovcco<^ 

s OUX an.cnox R,n^A CB,gxe, {>oo.3o«3.oor..o0..»af».9o.tt*»ooccxx 

Foul anchors on Officers' skirts..., 25,39,44,46,87 

"Full Dress" and "Full uniform", ,..,,... 33 , 38 ,47 ,59 ,64, 65 

66; 67, 70, 71, 74, 78, 85, 85, 94 

Giant - Suit of cloa,thes for giant „«,,». i « c .««,.. c ,. e .« 15 

Glazed Caps. , , o . . . . ♦ , . , . , » e <, »..<». 61 

Gloves: 

Buff-colored gloves for of f icerso *» o • .••.oo,«59 

Officers, . , . , , c . . . . 59 , 70 , 73 , 75 , 76 , 87 

Yellow buckskin gloves for off icers. ..,„,.,... 70 , 75, 87 
Gold Star to indicate grade of commandant ,,.,. 71 , 77, 78 , 79 
or o o G n s I'/iax xnes.o*oeeo«o.*.»*««o.«*...o*««,«,.«......«a«x 

LrraSb green CXOtn COatSa .eoe,.c.«0»eo.e.«e,«.«..»*«a.*^ 

Great coats.. See also Watch coats .....3,7,13,19,85 

-96- 



Uniforms -97- American I'-nTinos 



Green uniforms of American MarineR of Anerican 

Rg vo lut i on 2,3,4 

Hair - Length of, etc 63 

Hair Pox^der 2,14,15,17,18,24,28,34,44,55,56 

"H^-^lr queued Pind powdered". .,,.,,o 47 

"Hair to be queued'',*.,,...,,, ,»26,3S 

Hqlf-hose. . See also Hose; Socks; Stockings 48,49,51 

Hangars. . See p.lso Swords. ,...e.e6o.»«». •.«.«»«*•.• e7 

Hat"bands. « . , „ , . 47 , 58 

"Herring-bone form" ......«»«... 73 , 77, 80,81 

Hose., See also Half-Hose; Socks; Stockings 48,51 

Illustration of Officer's coat ..,,...« ,«..,•,••«. 78 

Illustra.tions - never accepted without corrobora.tive 

proof of accuracy ♦»....«».* 60 

Lace not to be vrorn, . . , ♦...22,42 

Leather : 

Caps, Black leather 44,73,77,84,88 

Fatigue caps, «, o . c ,.♦.-., o » « ,. c 59 

Leather foraging .«»..,.„,.,.<,..,.,,.,.,,, c ? 48 . ^x9 
Leather uniform, .,,, ^ •».», c # o .•,,.».......■. 03 ,04 

Cocka.des 6,11, 30 , 39 , 40 , 47 , 70 , 71 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 78 , 37 , 88 

"Pieces of black leather in the rea.r of the hats 

to avoid the powder" « ,«,,,. 6,28 ,29 

Stock, black leather. 6,8,26,39,44,47,50,70,87 

Leathernecks , The (Sobriquet of American Marine) ....... .6 

London - clothes from,.,... .,.,,...,. 37 

"Mameluke hilt" sword.. See a lso Swor d 60,85,86,88 

Mamelukes in Egypt , . , , , » c * , . , . ^ ^^6 

Manufactured in United States, Unif orms. o 57,53,62 

Maryland State Marines ,,..,..,..,.. ..o ... * , 4 

Missing Archives (See Letter Henderson to Sec. Wa.vy 

23 July, 1829, M.C.Arch, that states correspondence 
missing from oeoter.ber 1800 to Sprint; of 1804). 22-23 

Mot to - "Don ' t Tread on Me I " ,.,./. ,.,,... 2 

Motto - "United States Marines" „ ,.,55,56 

Mourning Craioe , , , See Grape 

O'Bannon, Presley Neville, 1st Lieut„ U.S.:/I.G 36 

"Original Eight " Marines * 1 

Para,de Dress« 27 

"Pea green cloth" frock coats , 4 

Pennsylva.nia State I/[arines , .*...... .4 

Pipe clay.,, See also Whitin?; Sp.^nish Tifliiting, , * . 32 ,33 ,38 

-97- 



Uniforras -98- Anericpn liar in cs 



Plumes 7,22,26,29,30,31,34,35,39,40,44,45,47,51,52,53 

55,56,58,66,67,68,70,72,73,76,77,78,87 

Pompons. , 85 , 88 

Powder, Kair.See^ Flour for Hair Powder; Hair Powder; Queue 
Privateers, 1 

Queues. .See_ also Hair Povder 2,24,26,28,39,44,47 

Rattlesnake qnd Motto "Don' t Tread on LieJ " .2 

"Regimentals". 3,4 

"Red clothes". 4 

Sabres. » See also Swords,.,.,, 72,73,75,75,85 

"Sailor suit " 15 

Sajaples of uniform cloth. ^55 

Scales J gilt - on hats» , o 84, 85, 88 

Sea Duty - Uniform f or . , c66 

Selling uniforms. , . , . a . . 48 

Sentries to have their hair powdered ...,,14,15,17,18 

Side-arms « , See also Swords. , « 47 

Side belt s . . , » » . , c 54 

Socks.. See also Half-Hose; Hose; Stockings, ... 34, 48 .49 ,51 

'54,57 
SDanish Whiting. . See also Whiting; Pipe Cl^y, . . , , . . „ , » . 33 

Spotswood's Ma.rineSc « ,........«., o2 

Spurs for Field Officers c c . 72 , 75 , 87 

Spurs - "gold or gilt spurs", ,,.= o .,,.....». e.e87 

Staff - angles on a,rm. , 73 

"Staff boots".. . , ,72 

Staff - chevrons worn on arm, , . , . o 88 

Staff - Uniform for o , ,26 , 70, 72 , 73 , 77, 80 , 31 ,88 ,89 

Star, sold - to indicate grade of Comf^^ndant of Corps,. 71 

77,78,79 

States" Marines = ..«.<, , . .4 

Stocks of black leather,..,, See . Leather Stock 

Stock of black leather, L-Iajor Carmick wore one 9 years, 50 

Stockings. . See also Half -Hose; Hose; Socks, ...4o,51 

Summer Dress, Clothes, Uniform. .6,12 ,13,16 ,17 ,13 ,23 ,29 ,42 
Summer Establishment , . 43 , 45 , 46 , 48 , 50 , 53 , 56 , 61 , 79 , 82 , 33 , 85 

Survey of Clothes ....... = .... 30,90 

Sword : American Ife.rines of America.n Revolution 2 

"Brass or gilt scabbards" for SB,breB. 70 ,72 , 75 , 77 ,80 ,81 

"Broad Swords with gilt or brass sca.bbR,rds" 70 

"Gilt mounted", , . .. , ,6 

"Ivory cross hilt". ,...,o.52 

"Mameluke Hilt", ,...., 36,52,60,85,36,88 

Mameluke - Presented to Lt, O'Bp.nnon 36 

Mameluke - "Plain brass scabbard sword or sabre with 

a Ma.meluke hilt of white ivory",,, .65,86 

-98- 



Uniforms -99- American I.larinoe 



Sword: (Continued) 

Music * • .62 

Officers 16 , 67 , 73 

Officers - cost of ...♦.on,o9 

Serge?^nts - "brass handles". 7-0,10,11,17,19,62 

Sergeants' "Hangars" 7-0 

"Sma,ll siYords (yellovf mounted)", .5 

"Yellow mounted sabres" 25,39,44,47,07 

System of account abilit^z-o ..•..« e .•». o .••..•♦. #92 ,93 



Tassels 40,43,47,50,64,57,70,71,73,75,77,05,37,00 

Tailors 6,11,14,2 7,20,31,32,41,50,60 

Undress Uniforms 0,9,70,71,74,75,77,70,79,01,93,94 

Uniforms - Formal Uniform Orders: 

March 25, 1804„ 20,25-25 

October 14, 1805 (printed). 38-40,51 

April 19, 1810 45-48,51 

March 22, 1821„ » » . . o, . , » .51,69-74,93 

May, 1821 „. 71-74 

August 3, 1821 (revoked August 25, 1821) 79-80 

August 25, 1821 (Printed)o. ^ ,.81-62 

1825 , . .80-88 

April 26, 1825o , ,.,60,93 

Uniforms, Periods of: 

Colonial Period (1607-1775). 2 

American Revolution (1775-1783) 2-4 

Pre-Corps (1797-1798) 5 

French Navcal War (1798-1801 ) « 5-19 

Tripolitan War (1801-1805 )c 5-43 

Period , 1807-1812, , 44-50 

War of 1812, and War rdth Ale;iers (1812-1815) .,.. 51-57 

Period, 1816-1820 .57-69 

Period, 1821-1829 69-94 

Watch ClopksB 55 

Watch Coa,ts. 7,10,19,45,54,55,56,52 

West Indian Uniforms • .5 

mii ting.. See also Pip^ Clpy ; Spp.nish Whiting.32 ,33 ,34,35 ,41 
Wings : 

Enlisted Men 11,73,77,85 

Officers. ,66,6 7,70,73,77,88 

<-KWinter Cloathes 13,18,20 

Winter Dress 13,18,33,41,58 

Winter Establishment 33,41,44,45,54,57,59,68,82,83,84 

85,91,94 
Winter Uniform 24 



-99^ 



"^ "--J »y.-